'Samuel Hahnemann was the real father of modern Molecular Medicine': the perspectives of 'Neohahnemannism'
Some latest concepts of medicinal science are indebted to
Hahnemann's holistic approach of cure. The recent outcome of his philosophy are patient-specific treatment,
therapeutic vaccination (both involve proteomics), drug-targeting and drug-delivery
technique by applying least amount of medicine within micelle and liposome as 'carrier'. Yet, according to many scientists
infinitesimally diluted homeopathic drugs have no molecule of the original remedy left; they
therefore are 'non-molecular and non-functional'. Conversely, it has recently been
found that molecules of the original remedy can exist in ultra-high dilution. How it Works: Diluting away of molecules
is possible so long as the solution remains homogeneous. When homogeneity is lost during Potentization,
few molecules can be obtained up to much higher dilution than 12C. As water has a high
Dielectric Constant (DC= 80), it can separate the +ve and -ve charges of the solute
molecule wide apart, and form a hydration sheath around them. Addition
of ethanol (DC = 24) to such an aqueous medium causes reduction of DC. As a result,
ethanol mono-layer is formed around the hydrated sheath like 'inverted micelles'. When the solution is further
diluted with fresh ethanol and succussed during
potentization, ethanol bi-layer capsule is formed around the sheath, like
'drug loaded liposomes'(more precisely: niosomes). With the increase of potency the number of ethanol molecules
increases around the same and the capsule becomes more compact. Here succussion is comparable to sonication.
When more than one molecules are housed in the capsule they may take the shape of 'nanoparticles'.
Due to fall of DC the solute molecules become more concentrated towards the
bottom of the vial. Depending on to nature solute molecule they can levitate at the top of the solution in
the form of nanoparticle. If one tries to transfer a drop
of such a dilution to the next vial of fresh ethanol, the 'capsules' gaining much higher
speed than the solvent molecule rush to the next container, but most of
them cannot properly return to the original vial due to attainment of non-homogeneity. Thus, theoretically
few molecules remain in ultra-high serial dilution. When it is poured upon sugar globules,
the ethanol-encapsulated drug molecules stick to them and the former acts as 'carrier'. Deficiency of a transcription factor
(e.g., repressor) or its down-regulation may cause slow regulation or less sensitivity resulting accretion of
a known deleterious enzyme (and/or depletion
of a beneficial one from its normal level), much downstream to the said factors, causing
a particular combination of symptoms in patients. When such combination of symptoms becomes similar to drug-induced
symptoms of a healthy person, it indicates that
deficiency of the same factor is responsible in both the cases. 'Proving' is therefore an indirect way of
identifying the factor(s) in terms of symptoms-inducing medicine. When
the medicines are applied to patients the drug loaded 'capsules' move in an enormous
speed through the body fluid and strike the lipid bilayer of the affected cell, which undergoes
'flip-flop transition', so that Penetration of drug molecules to the interior, even up to
the nucleus become possible. In course of journey through the lipid bilayers, the protective
ethanol capsule is lost and the medicine molecules directly or indirectly bind with
specific transcription factor (e.g., deficient repressor) by replacing its
original ligand-inducer. The active principles of such medicines mostly
are plant products containing alkaloids, exudates of healthy or diseased tissue containing
antigens, or come from mineral kingdom. These are actually a ligand-inhibitor of that minute unknown protein
factor, as they can directly or indirectly mimic the substrate (or product) of the respective enzymes, or
antigen of the respective antibody,
thus can create a 'stress' similar to the disease proper. Then slight Aggravation of symptoms
in patients occurs when it is applied in minute dose due to transient increase of the
deleterious product and/or further deficiency of the useful one. Transposable
elements (or 'jumping gene') and somatic mutation bring variability in diseased tissue cells, some become
competent others are incompetent.
Even in minute application of medicine the incompetent cells succumb, but the competent ones win over the
stress and multiply. So there is Amelioration due to
multiplication of competent cells or favorable segments of transposable
elements. Hence, the deleterious product decreases and beneficial one increases. Recovery
is therefore possible by stimulating the deficient transcription factor. Diseased condition of a patient
then can be represented
by a blockage in the branching pipes of minute metabolites, which indicates scanty flow of
some metabolites and overflow of others. It can create difference in protein profile between healthy and
diseased individual. Medication is therefore comparable to 'gentle hammering' to that
particular point of minute metabolite blockage, so that the defective protein profile can be rectified in
course. The exact matching of combination of symptoms between patient
and 'Prover' is then crucial to bring reproducibility of cure. Hence, an autoradiographic method to identify
the minute deficient protein from defective
protein-profile of the patient has been suggested to sort out the specific remedy, which is nothing but a
ligand-inhibitor of the same. Its inhibition would hypothetically
induce identical combination of symptoms upon healthy persons. Such a stimulatory
method might be effective for any dynamic disease, including cancer and AIDS. Some
preliminary success (modulation of protein profile and gene expression profile of
cancer patients) has been achieved recently by following the said principle (Neohahnemannism). In the near
future it might almost completely replace the orthodox medicinal practices.
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Neohahnemannism is the re-evaluation of Hahnemann's theory in the light of modern science. Many dignitaries in the field of science were
recognized shortly after their inventions or even within their lifespan. Their theories
were initially not acknowledged
by the scientific community, but they were finally evaluated after a long period
or even after their
death. This generally occurs to them, who are much progressive in thought
than their contemporary workers. The theory of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was
admitted to be the greatest of all biological inventions much later. Eventually, a new prefix 'Neo' was added ( Neodarwinism ) to the name of his
theory by the successive workers based on latest scientific knowledge available
at that time. Samuel
Hahnemann (1755-1843), the father
belongs to that category, but a little bit different. At young age, he
faced severe obstacles, achieved supreme professional success in
maturity, but his theory faced a bitter criticism, polemic, disapproval,
and negligence after his death, in spite of gaining wide recognition in several
countries. After Hahnemann, Gregor
Johan Mendel (1822-1884), also
has suffered from extreme heedlessness in the field of science within
his lifespan, but when his theory was scientifically explained after his
death, he was admitted to be 'the father of Genetics'. This event does
not occur in all the persons. Edward
(1749-1823), a contemporary physician of Hahnemann, who discovered
vaccination , was also unable to
explain his findings scientifically, but he gained fame and celebrity
after a brief period of strong resistance, due to high reproducibility
of his method, which a homeopathic medicine could not show. Besides that
the main point of controversies, so that homeopathy is not getting
substantial importance in mainstream medical science so long is not due
to lack of experimental evidences, but due to the dearth of a
self-explanatory model, absolutely resistant from scientific rejections.
The first point of objection assigned by the scientific community is
, and the second is the science of 'proving, i.e., how such a small quantity of
drug can arouse visual response. Some workers of the mid
twentieth century and later conceived that since homeopathic medicines
are administered orally, their actions, whatever it may, could possibly
be mediated through the receptor systems located on tongue and the oral
cavity. The drugs must have transmitted specific signals in the receptor
cells that could activate specific region of brain hypothalamus in a
manner that could possibly help elicit further signals to activate or
repress certain transcriptional activities of specific region of
DNA meant for restoration of the
damages caused due to disease interaction. In spite of this, we cannot
fully admit this idea; firstly, because the effect of homeopathic drug
has been observed in unicellular animals, even in cultured cells, free
from nerve connections; secondly, all the patients of the same disease
do not respond to the same drug; thirdly, stimulation of a nerve
requires threshold strength, which in general cannot be imparted by
minute drugs. After the invention of homeopathy, as written in
of Medicine " more than two
hundred years have passed and stimulatory effect of minute dose
therapeutic agent to every type of cells in human body was brought to light. Now
it became clear that homeopathy is not a placebo therapy, as most skeptics claim,
because it is effective on infants, unconscious persons, or even subhuman creatures.
The modern modified version of Hahnemann's theory, synthesized in the light of some
recent works of cell biology, genetics, immunology, toxicology, molecular medicine,
analytical chemistry, and quantum physics requires a new coinage: 'Neohahnemannism'.
From the very beginning, homeopathy was undoubtedly a science, but an imperfect one.
The author thinks that the theory of 'Neohahnemannism' would make it a perfect science.
The theory that a solution contains finite number of solute molecule was not known during Hahnemann's time, and therefore if the solution is diluted several times a condition may reach where no molecule of the solute remains. Now we know that when the molecular weight of a substance (e.g., sodium chloride, silver nitrate etc.) is expressed in gram, it is called mole, contains a fixed number of molecules (=6.023X1023). Suppose, 100 ml original tincture was prepared with one mole medicinal substance, therefore, the number of molecules would be 6.023X1023. One milliliter of such a tincture was dissolved in 99 ml of fresh diluent and succussed well, it would become the first potency solution (1C, or the first centesimal dilution), where the number of molecules would decrease 100 fold (=6.023 X 10 21 ). After the second potentization (2C), the number of molecules would fall into 6.023X1019. By this way when the solution reaches at eleventh potency (11C), it would be 6.023X101. In the next potentization (12C), there would be fractional number of molecule. Hence, practically no molecule of the original remedy would exist in such a solution. How can this solution have any curative power? This was the basic question arisen by the scientific schools to nullify Hahnemann's doctrine. Benveniste was the first man who upraised the polemic by discovering the controversial effect of zero -molecular aqueous dilution of anti- IgE molecules (Davenas et al, 1988) on staining ability of basophil granules. There are so many theories to explain the effect of zero-molecular dilution on living being, or 'Benveniste affair', which is the basic principle of homeopathy also. All the theories to explain the same along with pharmacodynamic effect (preservation of pharmacological property even in supposedly non-molecular dilution) can be broadly categorized into two broad heads: Non-molecular and Molecular hypotheses:
Some workers postulate that there is no existence of any solute or
drug molecule in ultra-high dilutions. The solvent molecules are either energized in ultra
high diluted solutions tuned or re-oriented. Hence, the theories can collectively be called
solvent type theory. Several workers
including Benveniste claimed that non-molecular information travels in the form of electromagnetic
wave and application of strong magnetic field might diminish the same
(Hadji et al, 1991)
. It was advocated
that the diluting solute molecules keep an impact on electronic orbit of
hydrogen and oxygen atoms of water, which again imparts effect in
biological system, so the theory is called 'Molecular Imprint model'.
Still, the theory cannot justify why camphor being a crude substance
could nullify the effect of 'Belladonna', and how the medicine could
retain its curative power for one year or more. After the rejection of
Benveniste's work by the editor of 'Nature' different workers all over
the world performed several replicas of the experiments, but they got
different gradations of results between success and failure. However,
nobody can claim cent percent reproducibility of 'Benveniste affair'.
In spite of that, it cannot be denied that the previous existence of
drug molecule may bring some alteration of spin of electrons in the
outer orbital of hydrogen and oxygen atoms of water molecule. According
we can assume that due to contact
between the water and solute molecules, the vibration of strings of
outer electron orbitals of solute atoms can transfer similar 'vibratory
character' to the 'strings' of electron orbitals of hydrogen and oxygen
atoms of water. Hence, transitory 'medicine-like electromagnetic
signal' may emerge from water molecules.
Some authors (Vithoulkas and Berghian-Grosan (2020) )
have emphasized on alteration of spin of electron orbitals of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen or Sulphur atoms. Their hypothesis suggests that in every sudden stress
(mental, emotional, or physical) that the organism is subjected to, there is a change in the overall structure of the
energy field of the organism. Between the different electromagnetic changes due to pathology that are possibly
occurring within the subatomic level, like ionized atoms,
change in the number of electrons, change in the number
of neutrons, quantum tunneling, quantum entanglement,
electron excitons, the most probable and the most direct
is a change in the spin of the electrons within one or more
atoms on different elements. According to them though it is non-detectable but can be cured by rectifying the same by homeopathic remedy. Yet, we can not fully agree with it, because such effect cannot remain year after years in a medicine of a pharmacy. Moreover, it can hardly explain how the healthy drug can bring symptom in provers.
'Tuned solvent hypothesis' is
another model, which denotes the special properties of a solvent gained
by pre-existing solutes. Here the water molecules being a solvent are
'tuned' in such a manner that even in the absence of solute it shows
some special properties of the same, like 'healthy water' on living
beings. According to the said hypothesis this 'healthy water'
independently moves inside the cell through water
channel of the cell and brings
salutary effect in conduction of ions, like sodium, potassium, chloride
etc. Hydrated ions due to their larger size cannot enter through the
pores of plasma
channel . They, therefore, have to
shed their hydration layer outside plasma membrane, before entering
into the cell. The water molecules that form a hydration sheath outside,
become disorganized in diseased cells, as a result, the ions cannot properly
shed their own hydration sheath and pass inside. The 'healthy water'
with medicinal property that comes from homeopathic drug reorganizes the
hydration sheath ensuring the proper passage of ions into the cell.
Thus, it explains curative effect. In spite of that, it cannot
satisfactorily answer the cause of appearance of 'proving symptoms' in
healthy persons by applying such 'tuned or healthy water'. In the same way, it
cannot explain what superiority such 'healthy water' molecules in higher
potencies achieve as well. Crystal Water Model is the chemical form of
'Tuned Solvent hypotheses'. In liquid water, each water molecule forms
between H and O atoms with an average of 3.4 other water molecules at
room temperature. Since water molecules are
in continuous motion in the liquid state, these hydrogen bonds are
constantly being broken rapidly and are reformed
(Figure:1A, click here to enlarge).
Various types of
crystals could be formed by the slight rearrangements of hydrogen bonds
between water molecules, which can bring variation in spectral
properties of water in ice state. It has further been investigated that twenty of
the 14-molecule tetrahedral units together
containing 280 molecules of water ((H2O)
280), may form a 3 nm diameter
shape of water
cluster . According to several workers, diluting
away drug molecules bring some long lasting structural changes in the
water crystals, which is said to be responsible for its 'memory' of the
non-molecular solutes (Sukul et al, 2005;Pan
et al, 2003;Chaplin et al, 2000;Chaplin, 2007)
. The model is not
because if we presume that water does store and transmit information of
concerning solutes by means of its hydrogen-bonded network, then also it
would not work, because, solutes of the body fluid may re-equilibrate
them and form newly clustered network with altered information.
Moreover, the purest water in earth should be considered grossly
contaminated. This contamination may well have a major influence, and
itself be influenced by the structuring in the water it encounters.
Changes in crystal structure of water can preserve more stable
conformations, but it might not represent the entire drug molecule or
mixture of more than one drugs. Hence, these complicated theories appear
to have nothing to do in
explaining homeopathic dilution, because we do not observe a wide
difference in action between 'Nux vomica-3' and 'Nux vomica-30' though
the former is 'molecular' but the latter is 'non-molecular'. There are
some physical models for 'memory of water' as well.
first reported that high dilutes can be identified using nuclear
magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( NMR
( Young, 1975)
. Yves Lasne later
provided the detection technology based on measurement of NMR and
radiation . Lasne demonstrated
that progressively diluting nitric acid even when it crosses Avogadro's
limit shows some characteristic radiation, called remanent waves, which
was represented mathematically by Rolland Conte and his fellow
workers (Berliocchi and Conte,
1994;Conte et al, 1994)
. According to them
Contonian appearance of remanent wave is the cause of 'Benveniste
affair'. It means certain form of 'memory' exists in the form of
', a small but highly energized area of space, but this concern with the
'memory of emptiness'. 'Contonian Model' intends to explain potentization
above 12th potency. Nevertheless, the emergence of 'singularity' merely
by dilution has not been experimentally proved. Moreover, at higher
dilution speed of the solute molecules increases enormously, so that
absorption of solute molecules to the inner surface of glass vial is
elevated exponentially, and the vial may become contaminated with drug
molecule. For the same reason, it is difficult to remove the faint smell
of an odoriferous liquid from a glass vial even by repeated rinsing
with distilled water. In his experiment also, Lasne prepared higher
method, i.e., dilution by emptying and refilling the same vial with
fresh diluent. Korsacovian method of dilution might be explained in this way. At higher
dilution speed of the diluent-entrapped solute molecules or nanobubble increases
enormously, so that
absorption of the same to the inner surface of glass vial
elevates exponentially. For each newer dilution with fresh alcohol they emerge to the solution and
levitates towards the air water surface. However, according to some workers
Contonian appearance of remanent wave might merely
be due to glass contamination or reaction of soda- glass with nitric
. When the vial is made up of silica glass, such observation was not found.
'Tuned solvent hypothesis', 'Crystal water' and 'Contonian model'
raise the frequently asked question: Can a single drop of medicine is
able to cure a large number of fishes suffering from ulcer (with
identical symptoms), in a pond?
Some recent workers postulate that there is existence of
solute or drug molecule in ultra-high dilutions. This occurs due to either establishment
of non-homogeneity of the solute molecules in highly diluted solutions or trapping of the
same in the silica-glass inner surface of the vial. Hence, the theories can collectively
be called solute type theory. Fluvial molecular model
(Chattopadhyay, 2002, 2003, 2006)
is one of them. It states that diluting away of molecules is possible
so long as the solution remains homogeneous. When homogeneity is lost,
the Avogadro's limit does not exist. It postulates that if potentization
strictly following Hahnemann's suggestion, the medicine cannot be
non-molecular. We can make a simple observation for understanding
fluvial behavior of solute in a diluted solution. When a bottle of
lemonade is freshly opened and drunk, there is a sharp taste of soda
water. If one
deeply occludes the mouth of the bottle with a thumb, shakes it
vigorously, and quickly discards some part of the liquid in the same
manner for four to five times, the sharpness of taste of the remaining
part of the drink would fall significantly. Here the carbon dioxide
molecules (solute) of soda water flow away very fast (or become fluvial)
with the discarded volume higher than the expected number.
Hahnemann has directed ten strong successions in equal manner in every
dilution with the hand against a hard but elastic body (perhaps a leather-bound book)
(Figure:1B, click here to enlarge).
We know that water has a high
dielectric constant (=80) than
other solvents, so it can dissolve almost every solute molecules by
separating their positive and negative charges wide apart, but during
ritualized succussion and infinitesimal dilution, where the number of
solute molecules is depleting drastically, so that each solute nolrcule comes
in contact with numerous solvent molecules and the number of solvent
molecule covering the surface of solute molecules becomes progressively
Then each solute molecule comes in contact with numerous solvent molecules.
Eventually, the entire surface of the solute molecule
becomes supersaturated with solvent molecule (Chattopadhyay, 2003)
. Besides hydrogen
bonding between H2O molecules, a sort of
attraction exists between its atoms (H-H, H-O and O-O), called
Waals force . When these atoms
come very close in course of potentization, such kind of attraction
between them increases several folds, forming a dense elastic screen
around the drug molecules, which brings opposite charges of the same
close together and the effective dielectric constant of the solvent
falls. The solute molecules thereafter show a tendency to get more
concentrated towards the bottom of the solution with the increase of
There is a misconception among some
homeopaths that every
drop (or milliliter) of a potentized medicine is equally effective in
curing diseases, but it is not true. If every drop of intermediate
potencies were utilized, the estimated volume of high potency medicine
(e.g., 200C) obtained from single drop of original tincture would be
much greater than the volume of earth or the sugar required for
triturating the same would be greater than the mass of this planet.
The pharmacists have to prepare potencies by succussion from a very small fraction
of the infinite volume or mass. Actually, the drug molecules lie in progressively
smaller portion of the
solution with the increase of potency. Suppose, up to third potency
there might are 100 out of 100 drops contain drug molecules.
to sixth potency 99 of 100 drops contains the same. From seventh to
ninth potency 98/100 and so on, this follows a definite mathematical
model. Here, the number of solute molecule does not fall proportional to
dilution as ought to be. Lastly, a condition may
reach, where 1/100 fraction of the solution may possess the original
substance (drug molecules). This is theoretically the 'critical dilution'
(Chattopadhyay, 2002, 2003)
. If one tries to
transfer a drop of such dilution to the next vial after rigorous
succussion, all the solute molecules gaining much higher speed than the
solvent molecules would rush to the next container along with the drop,
like any gaseous substance. These fluvial molecules do not return to the
original vial due to progressive attainment of non-homogeneity,
preventing the dilution of solute molecules anymore. Starting from
6.023X1023 molecules, i.e., 1 mole
(=100) per 100 ml when diluting centesimally with
ritualized succussion, fluvial concentration
(=Cf) increases gradually due to undue
overflowing of solute molecules. Initially,
Cf is negligible, so
that concentration (=C) of drug in terms of moles per 100 ml falls
sharply with the increase of real dilution (=D). However, at high
dilutions, nearing to 1024 times, equivalent to 12th
centesimal dilution (12C), the value of Cf
increases significantly, preventing the
diluting away of solute molecules considerably.
(Figure:1C, click here to enlarge)
(Click here to enlarge) - - - - - - - - (i)
Hence, zero-molecular state (10-24
mole/100 ml) is never reached in single serial dilution, i.e., few molecules
remain. It does not mean that if the practitioner
administers a medicine of 30th potency from the same vial to different
patients it would not work at all, because there would be a 'rich
source' of drug molecules left in properly potentized medicine, but if
he does so for 1000 or higher potencies the chance of acquainting even
single molecule would decrease. For that reason, in several homeopathic
pharmacies fresh higher potencies are prepared from 'back-potencies'
(stock solution of the previous potency) for each patient in order to
get better result. (Chattopadhyay, 2006)
, which indicates finiteness of drug
molecules in infinitesimal dilution. Obeying Hahnemann's dictum, the pharmacist should
prepare each of the intermediate potencies in small (5ml) vials of fresh
diluent. After a brief manual strike to a hard elastic support, tiny
bubbles would continue emerging from the bottom of the glass vial.
Transferring a drop (0.05ml) of the same to the next vial should be made
within that period. Succussions should be repeated in an identical way for
each intermediate dilution. Lastly, when it would reach to two-steps before
the desired potency, the entire volume (5ml) should be diluted with
fresh diluent making the total volume 500ml, and kept as 'back-potency',
from which the final potency should be made whenever
needed. As the alcohol for back-potency is much diluted than potentizing medium, the the drug
molecules are evenly distributed and every drop of the same can be used for preparation of the final potency medicine.
This is because, potencies are generally prepared by strong alcohol, 95.4%v/v or dispensing alcohol,
which Contains 91.4%v/v (limit 91.0 to 92.0%v/v) of
ethyl alcohol, while back-potencies are preserved in dilute alcohol, which contains 60%v/v, (limit 59.5% to 60.5%v/v)
The medicine may also be dispensed by using lactose sugar globules as the absorbent medium. Hence, each
single drop of back-potency and every globule of milk of sugar can be used as medicine.
We have understood from the above discussion that if
succussions are not made between each two successive dilutions, after 12th potency
there would be very little
chance of acquainting at least single molecule of the original substance. However,
if succussions are made the medicine molecules are transferred to the next dilution
as Cf, which progressively increases with potency. Chattopadhyay
has constructed a
mathematical model to find out the value of Cf.
Initially, at the beginning of centesimal dilution, there would be no
significant effect of dilution on van der Waals force, because it is
inversely proportional to the seventh power of the distance between the
adjacent water molecules that remain wide apart in a low diluted
solution, sparsely covering the surface of the solute molecule.
Conversely, when the solution reaches to ultra-high dilution, succussions
can bring water molecules closer, tightly covering the entire surface
of solute molecules, there is a loss of homogeneity and therefore
fluvial transfer of drug molecules increases. So, the increase of
Cf with dilution becomes sigmoid.
Cf is directly proportional to
Dn, here n<1 (where n is an indication of
potentization efficiency) and it seems to be asymptotic to the critical
concentration Cc, when almost all the remnant
molecules become fluvial. 'Critical dilution' is an ideal concept, not
the real one. One can go very close to it, but never reach. Likewise,
Cf value increases with potentization, but nobody
can say at which dilution the entire source of solute molecule,
expressed as critical concentration (Cc), would
be fluvial (Cf= Cc). It is
mathematically very difficult and useless also to determine the exact
dilution (critical dilution, Dc), at which all
the drug molecules that would still remain after endless serial
dilution, would become fluvial, So Chattopadhyay defined an easier term,
the median critical dilution
Dcm to derive the following equation.
(Click here to enlarge)
In the recent years,
some supports in favor of the molecular model have become stronger, which
postulated that very few molecule of the original substance might exist
in an infinitesimal dilution
(Samal and Geckeler,
2001;Ives et al, 2010;Rao et al, 2007;Chikramane et al, 2010;Chikramane et al,
. However, before the first decade of 21st century there was no highly
sensitive method developed by the workers to detect presence of minutest quantity
of molecules in infinitesimal dilution, except some found difference in 'punctured
voltage', NMR spectra, and Fourier Transform Infra Red spectra between pure and
infinitesimally diluted solutions representing alteration in hydrogen bond structure
of water. All these were actually indications of hidden or impregnated drug
molecules within the diluent medium. The central theme of 'fluvial molecular model'
lies in the attainment of non-homogeneity of drug molecule, which has been supported
by experimental works as follows. Two chemists: Kurt Geckeler of Germany, and his
colleague Shashadhar Samal were investigating
(Samal and Geckeler, 2001)
, a chemical agent,
at their laboratory in the Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology
in South Korea. The fullerene molecules were found clumping together,
first as clusters of molecules, then as bigger aggregates of those
clusters when diluting in aqueous solution. Far from drifting apart from
their neighbors, they got closer together. They found that the football
") like molecules kept forming by untidy aggregates in the solution.
Conventional notion says that the dissolved molecules simply spread
further and further apart as a solution is diluted but their observation
was just opposite. To make the otherwise insoluble football-shaped
molecules dissolved in water, the chemists had mixed it with a circular
sugar-like molecule called cyclodextrin. When they did the same
experiments with the same molecules, they found they behaved the same
way. So did the organic molecule sodium guanosine monophosphate, DNA and
plain old sodium chloride. Dilution typically made the molecules
cluster into aggregates five to ten times as big as those in the
original solution was. The growth was not linear, and it depended on the
concentration of the original. According to Geckeler, the history of
the solution is here important. The more dilute it starts, the larger
the aggregates. In addition, it only worked in polar solvents, like
water, in which one end of the molecule has a pronounced positive charge
while the other end is negative. It appears to disobey the
law of thermodynamics
, but it cannot be. According to
model', when serially diluted the solute molecules get
chances to come across with several fresh stocks of water molecule one
after other its surface is covered with more water molecule than simple
dilution of the same concentration. Hence, the history of serial
dilution of the solution is so important. The van der Waals force
between similar and dissimilar atoms of water molecule increases
aberrantly and hydration layer around the solute molecule gets more
compact, opposite charges of solute molecule comes closer, effective
dielectric constant falls and the solute gets more concentrated towards
the bottom of the solution. Hence, homogeneity of the solution is lost
and due to surface tension, the hydrated molecules aggregate as clump. We may call it a form of "
Fluvial molecular model can explain most of the experimental findings till date. The model states that if the potencies were made strictly following Hahnemann there would be no scope of polemic related to zero-molecular dilution. Some workers obtained preliminary data for the existence of molecule using Raman and Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy illustrate the ability to distinguish two different homeopathic medicines (Nux vomica and Natrum muriaticum) from one another and to differentiate, within a given medicine, the 6c, 12c, and 30c potencies (Rao et al, 2007; Demangeat, 2015 ) . According to them succussion might also be responsible for creating very tiny bubbles (nanobubbles) that could contain gaseous inclusions of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and possibly the homeopathic source material. We have seen that after each succussion, numerous tiny bubbles emerge from the bottom of the container and the solution becomes frothy for a short period, indicating highly organized state of ethanol molecules than distilled water. We may presume that, ethanol molecules might be oriented around the hydrated drug molecule (one or few) forming one or more concentric inverted layers. Characteristic changes also appear in NMR spectra. At the beginning of 2nd decade of 21st century some workers brought it to light that 'metallic molecules may exist' by employing some innovative technology, which can be regarded by and large as an experimental support of the 'fluvial molecular hypotheses'. Existence of a metallic element can directly be proved by atomic absorption spectrophotometry better than other means, because each metal can produce flame of specific color when burnt, which is not dependent upon any type of ionic, covalent or hydrogen bonding. Many sensitive methods to identify specific metallic element even at nanogram level were developed. Concentrating the solute several fold it was possible to detect the presence of a metallic element in an ultra-diluted solution. Using atomic spectroscopy, some workers have (Chikramane et al, 2010) found that there are nanogram quantities of the starting material still present in these 'high potency' remedies prepared from metallic salts ('Zincum met', 'Stannum met', 'Cuprum met', 'Argentum met', 'Aurum met', and 'Platinum met'), even after 200C dilution, in the form of nanoparticles. According to them traces of 'nanoparticles of the starting materials' levitate (float) in the 'upper layers' of the solution, which is transferred to new vial for making higher potencies. Later they showed that once the bulk concentration is below a threshold level of a few nanograms per milliliter, at the end of each dilution step, all of the nanoparticles levitate to the surface (Chikramane et al, 2012) and are accommodated as a monolayer at the top. This dominant population at the air-liquid interface is preserved and carried to the subsequent step, thereby forming an asymptotic concentration. It means that that the concentrations of these starting materials, albeit at extremely low (picogram/milliliter) levels, did not decrease as expected with serial dilutions but instead formed an asymptote beyond the 6c potency (dilution factor of 1012), which directly corroborates with the prediction of Chattopadhyay (Chattopadhyay, 2003) . Chikramane et al (Chikramane et al, 2012) thus found that homeopathic medicines prepared using metal powders as the starting raw materials retained them even at extreme potencies of 30c and 200c (dilution factors of 1060 and 10400, respectively), much beyond Avogadro's number. In spite of such enormous dilutions, nanoparticles of the metals ranging in sizes from 5 to 10 nm were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction (ED). There might be no unanticipated finding of Chikramane et al (Chikramane et al, 2012) , but some workers like Ives et al (Ives et al, 2010) pointed out the following difficulties of the hypothesis included therein. Chikramane et al (Chikramane et al, 2010; Chikramane et al, 2012) hypothesized the formation of nanoparticle or nanobubble complexes that would rapidly rise to the surface of the mixture forming a monolayer, especially at high dilutions. In this way a non-equal distribution of starting material would result during any settling between dilutions. When the top 1% of the solution is used as starting material for the next dilution, as they observed at one plant, and this process is repeated for each 'dilution' step, no dilution in fact occurs. If nanocomplexes rise to the top of a vial, many manufacturers discard this portion of the solution. The question arises 'if the drop is pipetted out from the middle or bottom layer?' For example, the Korsakovian method of remedy manufacture empties the vial and uses the remaining solution from the walls and bottom (not top) of the tube for the next dilution. Finally, even if the persistence of small amounts of any substance were proven, how they could elicit significant clinical responses from the chemicals themselves would have to be explained. One might expect clinical relevance if the concentrations fall within the range of stimulation, which these concentrations appear to be. Actually, Chikramane et al (Chikramane et al, 2010;Chikramane et al, 2012) have not written anything about the significance or superiority of higher dilution over the lower ones. Fluvial molecular model has paved the way towards solution of the problem much earlier by stating that though the original substance in the form of nanoparticles initially remains more concentrated towards the bottom of the solution in most cases, but whenever one tries to transfer, it moves to the fluvial part of the solution like that of a gaseous substance and towards reaching a critical value its concentration becomes asymptotic to dilution (Chattopadhyay, 2003) . However, we cannot say that it occurs in all medicines, rather it depends upon specific gravity of nanoparticles. If the same is high it will settle down, if it is low it will float. The main thing is the loss of homogeneity, no matter where the layer of nanoparticles initially reside. If we pick even single drop of solution the nanoparticles will flow at a higher rate towards the dropper.
Entry of silicon materials from the inner coat of glass vial, when the same
glass vial is used for preparing potencies following Korsacovian method is
another workable hypothesis which explains how the original material remains
in higher potencies. The silicon particles of different shape may represent
medicinal property or it may carry the original material into solution in the
form of nanoparticles.
(Bell et al, 2015)
made an exploratory study characterized
nanoparticles in homeopathically-prepared Argentum Metallicum, succussed 6C,
30C, and 200C potencies and unsuccussed control solutions. Methods included
nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), zeta potentials, inductively-coupled
plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) for silver, and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy
(UV-vis). It was revealed >2 Ãƒâ€” 108 nanoparticles/ml in 20 of 21 samples,
200C exhibited the highest nanoparticle concentrations and exemplar transmission
electron microscopy of one Verum 30C sample showed scattered silver-like dark
nanoparticles embedded in an organic matrix. Glassware-derived silica from succussions
may contribute the nanoparticles and coatings for nonlinear source signal amplification
to initiate clinical effect.
( Upadhyay and Nayak, 2011)
observed presence of silicon-rich crystalline material as
nanoparticles and conglomerates of 'Colchicum', 'Pulsatilla' and 'Belladonna' and controls,
even above dilution level 12C, where the starting-substance is unlikely to be present
according to Avogadro's limit by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission
electron microscope (TEM). According to them during the violent strokes involved in
potentization, information arising from the serially diluted starting-substance might
be encrypted by epitaxy on nanoparticles present in the resulting homeopathic medicine.
In the case of homeopathic medicines, crystalline silica (or silicon) nanoparticles
(along with other trace elements leaching from the glass wall of the vial) with
interfacial water on their surface may acquire the structural information of the
starting-substance during the process of potentization.
In the case of homeopathic medicines, crystalline silica (or silicon) nanoparticles
(along with other trace elements leaching from the glass wall of the vial) with
interfacial water on their surface may acquire the structural information of the
starting-substance during the process of potentization.
The size distribution of these nanoparticles and their clusters was found to be
nearly the same in different potencies. Nevertheless, the opposite was observed
in a different study. Other workers
(Nandy et al,2011; Ghosh and Chakraborty, 2015)
suggested that Drug particle size decreases with increases in potency.
on membrane anisotropy, they suggested that
the cluster's size decreases with the increasing potency.
Thus, after crossing certain limit 'all dilutions are only apparent and
not real in terms of the concentrations of the
starting raw materials.' It corresponds to Chattopadhyay's hypothesis of 'critical
dilution' (Chattopadhyay, 2003)
. Therefore, it hardly matters from where one is pipetting the liquid,
from the top, middle or bottom of the vial. Initially, the drug molecules show the tendency of being more concentrated towards
the bottom of the container. Finally, whenever the tiny air bubbles begin to form
from the bottom of the original container during succussion or when the solution
is poured into another fresh bottle of alcohol, the solution becomes fluvial,
and the drug molecules rush towards the top at air-water surface at much higher
speed than the solvent molecule. The said model was supported experimentally by
other workers also. Although there might be some medicines where the drug molecules
concentrate at the top of solution. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry is a
very sensitive method, especially for
detecting copper and zinc. Very minute
amount of those metals were found in five
potencies (6C, 30C, 200C, 1000C, and
10000C) of commercially available
homeopathic medicine "Cuprum metallicum"
and "Zincum metallicum" (Chattopadhyay,
2017). Similarly, presence of various phytochemicals such as
flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, carbohydrates and amino acids have been confirmed in
the "Allium cepa" 30C and 200C by other workers (Arora et al, 2017).
Most of the homeopathic medicines
available in the market contains traces of original drug molecules in the form of nanoparticles, tightly packed with solvent molecules.
Alteration of hydrogen bonded network of the solvent is merely the result of tightly packed
orientation of the same.
Hahnemann was not solely responsible for the controversies regarding zero-molecular dilution, it was a later development after the discovery of Korsacov's shortcut method, as mentioned earlier, by which 1000, or higher potencies could easily be prepared with a single vial. Hahnemann did not fully approve the method. He has clearly written there, 'I do not approve of your potentizing the medicines higher (as, for instance, up to thirty-six and sixty)'. He did not prefer large-scale industrial production of infinite volume of medicine by the greedy apothecaries to increase profit. In 13th September 1829, Hahnemann wrote a letter to a friend Dr. Schreter expressing disbelief over the effectiveness of these medicines that has reached infinitely high potency. He expressed that there must be some limit. (Britain Journal of Homeopathy v. p. 398). Possibly, he observed the incidents of failure of large-scale preparation procedure of medicines in curing patients. The following measures were probably taken by him to solve the problem:
(1) Throughout his entire life, Hahnemann primarily used medicines that were centesimally diluted 3, 6, 9, 12 or maximally 30 times.
(2) He used to prepare the medicine of his individual patients with his own hand to prevent repeated use from a single vial, and directed the practitioners to do likewise.
(3) Hahnemann in
most cases did not use liquid potencies, but kept milk of sugar as
absorbent medium of the same, which might trap the medicine molecule
from the diluent medium.
Hahnemann noticed that alcohol has more
than water, can 'prevent spoilage and decomposition' of the medicine ("Organon", 5th ed.Aphorism 123),
and he considered it to be a 'vehicle' that carries medicinal power to
the diseased tissue better than water. In this section, we will discuss how alcohol
can increase efficiency of potentization, sequestrate the drug molecules, acts as
shield to prevent cross reaction of the drug molecule with the substances in the body
fluid and increase their penetration efficiency as well, so that the drug molecules can
enter deep within the cell. Screening of solute molecule, as we have
seen in the previous section, by excess number of water molecule than the usual in pure aqueous dilutions
due to van der Waals force cannot last for a long time and it may be affected by
other forces. Excess water molecules can easily be dislodged due to little
agitation, or alteration of earth's magnetic field conferring the highly
potentized solution into an ordinary
one having no special property. Alcohol has got some special protective property
so that such type of spoilage can be avoided.
We came to know from the previous section
that loss of homogeneity is very important in potentizing a medicine, which is
effective by the fall of dielectric constant of the solution. The
addition of ethanol (Dielectric constant =24) to aqueous medium in order
to prepare potency causes a further intensive depletion of dielectric
constant. Hence, 'critical dilution' would be achieved much earlier than
that of pure water (Chattopadhyay, 2003)
. Precipitating ability of alcohol is not a new concept. The method for
precipitation of proteins from their aqueous solution by the gradual addition
of cold ethanol, as derived by Cohn and Edsall in 1941, is a good example of
secondary attainment of non-homogeneity. The positive and negative charges of
protein molecules remain separated widely in aqueous medium due to high dielectric
constant of water. By the gradual addition of ethanol the attraction between
opposite charges within protein molecule increases and they aggregate and
precipitate. The concept is true for not only proteins but for all charged molecules,
having high molecular weight. Hydrated charged molecules become concentrated at
the bottom region of the ethanol solution and if the bound water is removed, the
charged molecules become precipitated, nicely implemented in DNA and RNA isolation
technique from their solutions. For low molecular substances, or those who are
more soluble in ethanol than water, this event does not occur prominently, but
there is always a tendency of precipitation. In case of potentization of a
homeopathic medicine, the attainment of non-homogeneity is still faster in ethanol
because of easier
reestablishment of attraction force between opposite charges of drug
molecules. Due to special orientation of ethanol molecules during
succussion, the hydrated drug molecules would become easily concentrated
towards the bottom layer of the solution. That confers it to be a more
efficient medium for potentization than that of distilled water, so that
the potentization efficiency (=n) of ethanol would be higher than
distilled water (vide equation ii), and fluvial concentration in
relation to dilution in alcoholic medium would be more hyperbolic (for
distilled water, it would be more sigmoid). Ethanol would be able to
trap more hydrated drug molecules than water, therefore
Cc would increase accordingly. Hence, it is easier to preserve
molecularity of drugs in ethanol medium than that
of distilled water.
The special orientation of ethanol molecules
potentization can be explained from the concept of
. Ethanol can produce better
protective covering around the drug molecule in the following way:
In a crude aqueous extract of the medicinal
molecules form hydration layer around drug molecule
(Figure:2A, click here to enlarge). Its
positive and negative
charges remain wide apart. Addition of ethanol to prepare original
tincture of the drug produces a monolayer of the same around hydration
layer and it brings the charges closer due to lowering of dielectric
constant of the solvent (in case of non-electrolyte, it does not occur). Ethanol, being an
amphipathic molecule has a polar hydrophilic (-OH)
head and a very short hydrophobic
(CH2-CH3-) tail. It may be
presumed that in the 'mother tincture' (original alcoholic solution) of a
medicine it is arranged
around hydrated drug molecule like inverted
popularly called inverted
micelles , as 'water drop in oil'
where positive and negative charges of the drug molecule come more
. This type of inverted micelles are
seen in higher alcohols, which due to their large head can accommodate a
large number of solute molecules, but due to very small size of ethanol
molecules it possibly cannot sequestrate more than one or few solute molecule
at a time and for that reason inverted micelles are not observed under
ordinary microscope, but when the metallic drugs are observed under electron
microscope, nanoparticle, consisting of few number of drug molecules can be seen.
This type of micelles might be formed due to hydrophilic
interaction between the hydrated layer around the drug molecules and the polar
heads of ethanol
More precisely it can be said that the orientation of ethanol molecule can be
, there are liposome like vehicles made by surfactants. The hydrophilic crude drug molecules get shelter
into aqueous compartment, hydrophobic molecules in the ethanol bilayer and amphiphilic
molecules between aquatic compartment and exterior. Thus the Nanoparticles containing clusters of more than one drug molecules are formed (Chattopadhyay, 2019,
(Figure:2B, click here to enlarge)
The method of
is often used in the mainstream medicinal science to prepare liposome,
loaded with drug employing double-tailed phospho-lipid molecules in
order to deliver minimum quantity anti-bacterial, anti-tumoral and
anti-cancerous drugs to the target tissue. The lipid bilayer is formed
due to hydrophobic interaction around the aqueous compartment filled
with few drug molecules. As the medicine is used in very small amount
it can reduce the side effects. 'Potentization' of homeopathic drug may be
explained by the same way. Succussion is
comparable to sonication (Chattopadhyay,
2002, 2003, 2006)
. Sukul has successfully employed
sonication technique in preparing potencies. As we have mentioned
during succussion, ethanol may form bilayer around hydrated drug
molecules, where non-polar tails of both the layers come closer due to hydrophobic
With the increase of potency the number of ethanol molecules, forming
protective sheath covering each hydrated drug molecule increases and the
capsule becomes more compact due to increase of hydrophobic interaction
among the tails of ethanol molecules and van der Waals force among the
atoms. With the initial increase of potency ranging from 2, 3, 6, 12 etc.
the number of ethanol molecule contributing to enrich the capsule
increases steadily, but when it reaches to a saturation point at higher
potencies above 30, further incorporation of ethanol molecule to the
existing bilayer becomes harder and after 200th potency it is really
tough. One has to repeat hundreds of potentizing steps uniformly to
include just one or few ethanol molecules to the capsule making it more
small and compact. It also contemplates changes of hydrogen bonded network
structure of water-ethanol mixture. Hence the alteration of the network, which
was experimentally confirmed, is not the cause but the effect of potentization.
Higher potentization increases the number of shielding diluent molecules over
the surface of drug molecules, so that its penetrating power increases. Hence,
the hypothesis of nanoparticle of Chikramane et al in 2010 and 2012 (Chikramane et al,
2010;Chikramane et al, 2012)
corresponds to the idea of drug loaded liposome like ethanol capsule of
Chattopadhyay in 2002 and 2003 (Chattopadhyay, 2002, 2003)
Introduction of sugar of milk (lactose) as a
medicinal power by Hahnemann is of great medicinal importance. When the
medicine is poured upon lactose sugar the latter can preserve medicinal
property for a long time because being a reducing
sugar it contains free aldehyde
groups that can bind -OH group of ethanol molecules situated at the
outer layer of capsule. Hence, the lactose molecules can act as an
absorbent medium of ethanol- encapsulated medicine molecules, so that
even single small globule of sugar can transfer medicinal property to
the patient's body and stimulate vital reactions. Conversely, sucrose,
being a non-reducing sugar do not have free aldehyde group, so it cannot
be used for the said purpose. When larger number of lactose globules is
introduced, it can bring medicinal symptoms to healthy persons, but
remains effect-less when small dose is applied. Therefore, a definite
dose-response curve can be obtained. This is not possible in liquid
medicine, because there is no definite number of high velocity units of
medicine ('capsules') per drop, as we have discussed earlier. Hahnemann
being a man of insight has revealed the fact within his mind. For that
reason, he preferred to use lactose sugar moistened medicine.
Hahnemann has utilized this quasi-compound property of lactose mixture
in making solution of the insoluble medicines also. Several insoluble
compounds may enter into clear solution stage after 3-4 steps of trituration, and
then they can easily be potentized with alcohol. As we use
chromatography to trap desirable substance from a highly diluted
solution by passing the same through a glass column, packed up with
absorbent medium, Hahnemann also has mentioned the same technique in his
6th edition of Organon, while preparing 50-millesimal dilution. There
he used a thimble shaped cylindrical glass column packed with sugar
globule as an absorbent medium of 'medicinal substance' from highly
diluted succussed solution. Now imagine,
how talented man he was who can prepare 21st century medicine in 18th century.
In case of dry potentization, where lactose alone is
used as diluent medium, the
basic principle remains the same, i.e., encapsulation of the drug
molecule by the diluent medium and loss of homogeneity. When the
medicine molecule gets the chance of contacting increasing number of
sugar molecule it becomes packed up, cannot be separated from sugar by
any means and homogeneity is lost even much earlier than liquid
potentization. Sugar-coated medicine molecules form nanoparticles and show tendency of
clustered distribution throughout the entire mixture as numerous clumps
and their number does not decrease proportionally while triturating with
fresh sugar. Moreover, like a quasi-compound the medicine cannot be separated
easily from lactose. Similar observations of the formation of nanoclusters were
made in trituration studies (Chikramane et al, 2012)
of lactose with zinc dust (325 mesh, around 44 micron particles). The
zinc nanoclusters indicate the formation of 10-20 nm zinc
nanoparticles. The formation of nanoparticles from the larger
particles highlights the importance of the trituration process in
the generation of the nano fraction. The
generation of nanoclusters as evident from the TEM analyses. Lactose aids in preventing
the aggregation of the nanometer-sized particles formed during
the grinding process, thereby effectively segregating the
nanofraction from the coarser particles in the subsequent
It might be concluded that fall of dielectric constant of the diluent medium by
gradual addition of ethanol and succussion causes loss of homogeneity and formation of nanoparticles.
With the increase of potency, the number of solvent or diluent
molecules (alcohol) covering the hydrated drug molecules (nanoparticles) increases
forming a special type of orientation, which may act as a protective shield around the same. This type of
nanomolecular structures are able to stuck up with sugar globule, the latter can thus act as 'carrier' of medicinal property.
Moreover, when a drug is repeatedly triturated with sugar, it becomes so inseparably mixed with the same that
it can reach the affected tissue by baffling the antagonistic physiological response. Alteration of hydrogen
bonded network in homeopathic drug is not the cause of drug action but merely the effect of altered
orientation of solvent molecules.
We have seen in the earlier sections that homeopathic
medicines, even far above Avogadro's limit of dilution, contain traces of original
drug material. A relevant question may arise. How does such a vanishingly minute
quantity of medicine can produce symptoms on 'Provers' and cure the patient as
well? The cause of developing proving symptoms by highly diluted homeopathic
medicines seems to be due to their penetration ability. Hahnemann seems to be
overwhelmed by seeing the penetrating ability of homeopathic drugs. He has written
a little to explain the mechanism of penetration of drugs on different organs of
the body as follows: 'The homeopathic healing art develops from the spirit-like
medicine-forces of the crude substances. By means of then untried
treatment peculiar to that to a formerly unheard-of degree whereby they
all only then become quite penetratingly efficacious and remedial, even
those that in the crude state give no evidence of the slightest
medicinal power on the human body' ("Organon", 5th ed Aphorism
269). He believed that higher potency medicines have more rapid
penetration capacity than the lower potencies ("Organon", 5th ed
In spite of negligible quantity of original drug,
the potentized medicines enjoy greater penetration ability due to achievement of
compactness of ethanol capsule in higher potencies to develop proving symptoms
over healthy individuals and cure the same in patients. Moreover, with the increase
of dilution the compact capsules become speedier. The more compactness the capsule
achieves it gets more easy entry to the diseased tissue while moving
through liquid connection within minutest capillaries. The ethanol molecules pack
the hydrated drug molecule so tightly that no biological process can peel the
ethanol bilayer away from the hydrated drug even it can pass unaffected through
the road to digestion. Actually, the encapsulated medicines move so fast that no
specific channel is required except humor or body fluid, through which it penetrates
the target tissue and binds the target
. Medicines prepared with lactose also enjoy greater
penetration ability. It is a general tendency of the weak or mutant diseased
cells including that of
cancerous ones to consume sugar molecules voraciously. When the sugar globules
moistened with medicine or the medicine itself is triturated with sugar the
molecules remain attached inseparably with the same, like that of a compound of
sugar. When the same is administered in empty stomach, it would get an opportunity
to enter into the affected tissue. It can bind with minute enzyme (Chattopadhyay, 2002)
inside the cell.
There are several examples of
receptors of that category. Effect of homeopathic drugs
in modulating enzyme activity was observed by several
workers (Sukul et al, 2002)
. Hence, the biomolecules directly or indirectly influenced by homeopathic
drugs are nothing but sub-cellular enzymes. The drugs might affect several other molecules
involved in metabolism, like DNA, RNA, carbohydrate, fat, hormones, or any other compound.
Nevertheless, what is the superiority of these enzymes? This is because the enzymes are the
only species of biomolecules that has highly sensitive reversible binding sites for specific
substrates and gets affected at once when the same site is competitively preoccupied by a
inhibitor , which most homeopathic drugs possess. As for example,
'Thea' and 'Coffea' prepared from tea (leafs) and coffee (fruits) contain theophylline and
caffeine respectively. Among the known enzymes, phosphodiesterase is one, which binds both the
alkaloids , becomes inhibited by the same. Another drug
'Physostigma' prepared from a plant, Calabar bean (Physostigma veneosum), contains
eserine (also called physostigmine), which blocks a known enzyme acetylcholinesterase, and
it can constrict the pupils. "Chelidonium" contains an alkaloid Chelidonine, which is a competitive inhibitor of
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (EC 1.14. 13.97), an important enzyme in the body mainly found in the liver. Noticeably, in the mainstream medicine several intermediate
metabolites of a biochemical reaction have been discovered by applying enzyme inhibitors.
In a tissue extract when an inhibitor of a particular enzyme is applied, the intermediate
metabolites become accumulated. By the combination of this technique the steps of glucose breakdown has been identified.
In human body, numerous enzymes are interconnected like a network, and artificial inhibition
of any, even the minutest one can produce specific combination of symptoms due to
accumulation of some metabolites and deficiency of others. Moreover, the same enzyme molecule can
function repeatedly in a cell after reversible binding of the inhibitor, so that
duration of activity of homeopathic drugs upon 'Provers' may last for weeks. We would
have to remember that the enzymes or any other protein factors responsive to homeopathic
drugs are ultra-minute. One can isolate just 1 mg
thyrotropin releasing hormone (a peptide) from 4 tones of
hypothalamic tissue of goat brain from the slaughterhouse, where thousands of goats
would require to be sacrificed. Now imagine the minuteness of that protein factors that are
engaged in controlling its synthesis. These minutest species of protein factors
reside in the nucleus or very near to the same, but the larger proteins or functional
enzymes, regulated by the same generally remain restricted near the periphery of the
cells. In several cases, it was observed that substrate of an enzyme even in a very
minute concentration can activate the minute protein factors that regulates its synthesis.
Hence, the substrate-like competitive inhibitor in a very minute concentration if it
is able to reach the target can inhibit the said factor and can bring symptoms to the
healthy person or 'Prover'.
According to the suggested hypothesis , (Chattopadhyay, 2002,
the ultimate cause of any of the chronic disease was deficiency or
one or few minutest enzymes far upstream than the known protein that manifests up
or down-regulation. As the protein profile of the entire breast cancer patient
is not identical, the minutest deficient protein factor also might be different.
Stimulation of the same, specific for individual patient is
curative. Either any of the drug ingredients influences such an up-regulatory
transcription factor of CDK inhibitor protein and stimulates the same, or the
ingredient modulates the down-regulatory transcription factor of phosphorylated
Retinoblastoma (Rb) and activates the same. It either may stimulate the synthesis
of anti-cancer antibodies or activates the natural killer cells to destroy the
tumor. Direct deduction could not be drawn so far due to ultra-minuteness of the
enzymes involved in regulating cell cycle and non-detectable nature of homeopathic
drug ingredients, when ultra-diluted. Had the experiments mentioned above were performed
with crude radio-labeled drug extracts, the minute enzyme that binds the same might have
been revealed to some extent. In spite of that, there are adequate examples of specific
binding of alkaloids, minerals, and heavy metals with functional enzymes or receptors,
most of them have already been used as homeopathic drugs. Dimethylamino azo benzene
(found in azo dye) and phenobarbital can induce liver carcinogenesis of mice.
It has undoubtedly been proved that transcription factors might be induced by some psychotropic drugs
(Zygmunt et al, 2019)
or by mild stress
(Milik et al, 2016)
studying the protective effect homeopathic drugs over synergistic effect of these
carcinogens taking two potencies of 'Chelidonium' Biswas and Khuda-Bukhsh
(Biswas and Khuda-Bukhsh,
observed that initially there was an inhibition to lipid peroxidase enzyme activity
as the 'primary effect' (within 60 days) and finally there was stimulation of the same as
the 'secondary effect' (at 90 and 120 days of exposure), indicating an onset of defense
mechanism against carcinogenesis. Acid and alkaline phosphatase activities also showed
similar effect. Other parameters of carcinogenesis, like increase of mitotic indices,
chromosome aberration, appearance of micronuclei etc. also showed ameliorating trend by
the said medicine. Hence, Khuda-Bukhsh
has given emphasis on transcription factor(s), which being the minutest limiting factor
of human health might directly or indirectly be modulated by micro-doses of homeopathic
drugs. Some evidences were found in favor of the said hypotheses. As for example,
homeopathic drug 'Arnica' prepared from a plant Arnica montana possesses an
alkaloid helenalin. The main action of helenalin is the inhibition of a transcription
factor NFκβ (Klaas et al, 2002),
similarly to corticoid steroids. Hence, the said medicine might have some stimulatory
effect over the said factor in preventing hemorrhage by the expression of genes. Likewise,
Arsenic binding transcription factor Yap8p has also been detected
(Ilina et al, 2008
Homeopathic drug 'Arsenicum album' might have a stimulatory effect over the said transcription
factor. It has recently been observed that the medicine "Arsenic album 30" is a good medicine and
preventive for Corona, because some proving symptoms of the medicine nicely matches with most Corona patients.
It indicates that the same transcription factor(s) is affected by the pathogen as well as by the medicine.
However, this medicine is not effective to all the patients. Some others are to be treated by "Aconite",
"Belladona", "Bryonia", "Nux vomica", "Podophylum", "Aspidosperma" or "Vanedium" according to symptoms.
In any case keen observation of Oxygen saturation percentage in blood, whether it is dropping below 95
is necessary. In such case, oxygen support will be essential. If the condition of the patient is still not
improved he should immediately be hospitalized. This is because Corona is not a natural disease, but a manmade
disease. Hence, there are certain limitations of homeopathic treatment. Severe COVID-19 may be driven by
an overreaction of their immune systems against the infection where the body starts to attack its own cells
and tissues, rather than the virus itself. This abnormal immune response to the infection is called "cytokine
storm", which is one of the fueling agents of COVID-19. The Cytokines are small soluble molecules or proteins
released by the immune system in response to an infection that act as messengers for the immune system. As they
attract immune cells to counter the infection, which can be of any kind, cytokines trigger inflammation,even may
cause death of the patients. Hence, if we are able to characterize all the transcription factors and enzymes affected
by Corona virus, based on highest affinity to the medicinal ingredients by autoradiographic method, as mentioned above, cure
from any deadly or chronic disease would be possible by homeopathic means, but it is very difficult to achieve at this
state of science. Inability to undergo apoptosis is an important factor in the development and progression of prostate
cancer. Homeopathic treatments by 'Conium maculatum', 'Sabal serrulata', 'Thuja occidentalis',
and a MAT-LyLu Carcinosin nosode
(Thangapazham et al, 2006)
on the expression of cytokines and genes that regulate apoptosis was observed. They
produced anticancer effects in Copenhagen rats in reducing tumor incidence, tumor growth,
and metastasis. There were no significant changes in mRNA levels of the apoptotic genes
bax, bcl-2, bcl-x, caspase-1, caspase-2, caspase-3, Fas, FasL, or the cytokines interleukin
(IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-beta, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10,
TNF-alpha, IL-2, and interferon-gamma in prostate tumor and lung metastasis after
treatment with homeopathic medicines. The possible mechanisms for these effects include
regulation of apoptotic genes and cytokines in the prostate tumors of the said animal.
In another study
(Bigagli et al, 2014)
it was found that homeopathic medicine 'Apis mellifica' modifies gene expression
in human cells and has inhibitory effects on regulatory processes of inflammation;
in addition, extremely diluted dynamized dilutions (3C, 5C and 7C) still exert
significant effects on 5 selected candidate genes (IL1ÃƒÅ¸, CD46, ATF1, UBE2Q2 and
MT1X) in RWPE-1 cell line (human immortalized prostate epithelial cells) involved
in inflammation and oxidative stress.
When the highly diluted medicine is applied to
human body it moves within body fluid in an enormous speed and it strikes the lipid
bilayer of plasma membrane of the cell so that the bilayer undergoes
(Figure:3, click here to enlarge),
hence entry of drug molecules to the 'interior' of a cell, even up to nucleus is possible. The encapsulated drug
molecule has to traverse several lipid bilayers before entering the 'specific compartment', made by the membrane system
of the cell, where the target enzyme resides. The lipid layers in each case snatch away some ethanol molecules; consequently
the capsule is rendered breakable in course. Ultimately, after reaching 'specific compartment', the capsule disappears and
the drug molecule binds with minute target enzyme (and/or the
transcription factors that enhances its synthesis). For that reason, higher potencies would be required if the medicine has to travel a
long distance through smaller capillaries to the target tissue, e.g., skin, than the visceral organs like stomach, liver
and lung. On the other hand, if the medicines were required to be directly applied over the eruptions, e.g., for skin diseases,
very low potency or even 'Mother Tincture' would be effective. If the medicine is used at right potency it becomes 'penetratingly
efficacious'. In case it is used in lower potency than required, it would not be able to reach 'specific compartment'.
Administering the same in higher potency than need would be more penetrating but would also fail to give expected result,
because it would not be able to shed its tightly packed ethanol bilayer while reaching at the 'specific compartment'. For
allopathic drugs the pathological symptoms are much emphasized, while for
higher potency drugs concomitant or non-pathological ones in physical as well as mental sphere should be considered, because it
works much upstream than the latter. The bulky metabolic enzymes remain in the exterior of a cell, so crude drug is applicable,
while the transcription factor and other controlling enzymes generally remain in the interior of a cell, so highly potentized
medicine is applicable. In this aspect allopathic drugs differ much from homeopathic ones. During Hahnemann's epoch allopathy was
merely an effectological approach of treatment, but in modern system of allopathy subjective knowledge about pathology to treat
a disease is essential, because medicines are prescribed based on disease causing agent or pathological symptoms. However, it is
required but not essential in homeopathy, because root cause of disease (actually unknown protein factor sensitive to a particular
medicine) is indirectly identified in terms of medicine, based on mainly non-pathological medicinal symptoms when it is applied in
high dose upon a healthy person. Large number of medicinal symptoms automatically focuses upon the responsive protein factor that
is affected by the said medicine. Hence, homeopathic medicines are sometimes applicable in unknown diseases even.
Now we can differentiate 'dilution' and 'potency' in the following way:
we know that entrance of sodium chloride into the cell is very much restricted by ionic channels,
therefore, highly diluted application of the same in crude form cannot induce any ailment upon a
healthy person. However, when it is applied in potentized form as the medicine 'Natrum mur' such
channels cannot affect its mobility. It can directly enter into the cell even up to nucleus and
can bring symptoms in healthy persons after binding with minute enzymes and cures the patient as
well. Likewise, several medicines are prepared from toxic substances. If they are not potentized
might be inactivated by
detoxification system of the body so that medicinal
power would be lost. Likewise, minute concentration of an alkaloid from plant,
an allergic peptide or protein from animal, a mineral, a heavy metal, and an
antigen, even a small fragment of viral
or bacterial DNA after 'potentization' can induce 'proving symptoms' and all of
them can be introduced as homeopathic medicine ingredients. As we use vehicles
to reach safely to our office, the minute drug molecules, coated by ethanol,
reach to their 'working places', i.e.,
'specific compartments' of diseased cells. The drug must have similarity with
the substrate of minute enzymes, so that after reaching the interior-most part
of a cell it competitively binds and inhibits the same. By this way the said
agent can indirectly influence the minute enzymes, which can control synthesis
rate of specific biochemical products or directly does the same, so that 'proving
symptoms' can be induced even in a 200 potency drug when applied in a higher
dose to a healthy person. The patient suffering from the same combination of
symptoms indicates that
the same minute enzyme was originally deficient (Chattopadhyay, 2002,
or mutant. This is because the said enzyme may act as limiting
factor for synthesis of several other enzymes and their deficiency can indirectly
by combination of symptoms. Hence, the 'prime cause' of symptoms for patient and
'Prover' is identical. In ideal case, it successfully binds the 'optimal fraction'
of the deficient enzyme (Chattopadhyay, 2002
, say 1/100th part of the same, the disease becomes slightly aggravated for
few days. It
means 'simillimum' has been achieved and it would be followed by 'gentle cure' in
course. Similarity of symptoms between patient and 'Prover' is thus curative.
Hence, theory of 'similia similibus curantur' is thoroughly justified. In case of
'Prover', the medicinal dose is very high, so that it affects enzymes or transcription factor much higher than 'optimal fraction'.
There is a difference between dilution and dose as follows: In case the medicine is
applied to the patient in the right dilution (represented by potency), but in a much
higher dose than required, it would inhibit the target enzyme much greater than
'optimal fraction'; hence, there would be intolerable aggravation of symptoms, as
Hahnemann has said. Here the patient himself would act as 'Prover' and he would have
to stop the medicine immediately, and apply antidote of the said medicine, if required.
As for example, 'Nux vomica' is an antidote of 'Bryonia', and 'Belladonna' is an
antidote of 'Aconite'. Thus, the medicinal symptoms may be ameliorated by the application of the antidote.
Unlike antigen-antibody reaction that occurs in blood, the minute enzymes and transcription
factors remain veiled within the core of the diseased cells beyond the reach of crude drugs. It may be resolved that in higher potencies the
drug molecules also remain protected within the capsule of solvent. So they, being unaffected by physiological reactions,
get an opportunity to reach the inner chambers of the cell and modulate minute enzyme or even
transcription factors to arouse medicinal symptoms in healthy persons.
Minute dose of the same cures the patients suffering
from similar symptoms. The
similarity of symptoms between prover and patients
at the minutest level by the application of a particular medicine indicates that the
same enzyme or transcription factor (may be minutest and unknown) is the cause of symptoms in both.
The said enzyme should be considered as the target of homeopathic medicine.
Homeopathic medicines, according to the modern explanations as described in the
earlier sections, contain very minute amount of medicine molecules itself as
'nanoparticles' or 'encapsulated molecules' that can stimulate the minute regulatory
protein factors, much upstream in the synthetic pathway of the responsible enzymes.
When the said factor is stimulated the medicine is not required to apply throughout
One interesting observation should be clarified here. Several practitioners
of homeopathy have experienced that for acute diseases the suitable remedy can function
immediately. Then how it is able to stimulate the process of transcription so quickly?
The answer is that: transcription in several places of biological system occurs in
lightning speed, but the exact mechanism of the same was not even been properly
explained. As for example, the complete embryogenesis in some carps occurs within
18-24 hours. Then why a medicine would not be able to show its action within 1-2 hours?
Before going to the mechanistic pathway of cure we should have a
detail knowledge over the root cause of 'familial' or genetic diseases, acceptable by
any stream of medicinal science. The ultimate cause of all human genetic diseases
remains concealed within the genome. Molecular basis of the same is DNA. Synthesis of mRNA
occurs by copying DNA, as a
template (with the help of an enzyme RNA
Polymerase II ). As the information written within DNA
in the language of base sequence is copied in the same language into mRNA, it is
Transcription , which occurs in
the nucleus. As because the information stored within mRNA in the language of
base sequence is converted to different language in ribosomes, indicated by amino
acid sequence of protein or enzymes, it is called
. The rate of transcription is controlled by different
transcription factors , also called
regulatory proteins . These are of two types-
repressor , which control increase and decrease of
enzyme synthesis respectively. The former is synthesized from positive regulator
and the latter is from negative regulator element of DNA. Likewise, the operator element
, to which the transcription factors bind is of two types- enhancer
. Activator protein, synthesized
from positive regulator, binds with enhancer sequence, in most cases it corresponds to promoter
of DNA, which binds RNA Polymerase II, responsible
Likewise, repressor protein, synthesized from negative regulator, binds with silencer
sequence. In case of the activator, when substrate of the beneficial enzyme is available
in the cell it binds with enhancer element and enhances binding of RNA Polymerase II with
promoter element of DNA molecule and facilitates synthesis of functional enzymes in healthy
individuals. On the other hand, when the deleterious products are synthesized beyond a
threshold level, it can sufficiently bind and activate the repressor that in turn becomes
attached with silencer element, preventing the binding of RNA polymerase II anymore with
the promoter region. Consequently, the deleterious enzymes cannot be over-synthesized.
Enhancer DNA sequence, therefore has the opposite function to that of silencer. According
to some workers (Chattopadhyay, 2003)
transcription factors might be the target of homeopathic drugs.
Now, let us discuss what happens in a diseased individual and
how we can cure the same (it is not possible when the mutation of the functional
protein itself is involved). Diseases of human being are mainly caused by deficiency of some useful
metabolites or overflow of some deleterious metabolites. In a natural dynamic chronic disease, which has natural
aggravation and amelioration cycle, initially, there is no significant abnormality
in the functional gene, but due to some mutation at minute level, there is deficiency
of some transcription factors, which may cause two types of diseases: Type-(i): deficiency
of a useful metabolite, or Type-(ii): abundance of a deleterious one.
In both the cases, deficiency (or down-regulation due to small mutation in their regulator
element) of activator and repressor are the root causes. Therefore, the said transcription
factors, much upstream to the known enzymes, are responsible for both the cases. As the said
factors are located much upstream than enzymes of usual metabolic pathway, malfunction of any
can be reflected into several cell functions disturbances and the symptoms apparently non-
related to the pathological symptoms may appear as concomitant symptoms (e.g., excessive
thirst, irritability etc.) and modalities (e.g., inexplicable aggravation of the disease
in little walking, noise etc.). If the 'prover' has got the same combination of symptoms,
it is apparent that the same transcription factor has been affected, no matter what the
pathological symptoms are. They might be treated without subjective knowledge of the pathological
symptoms. On the other hand, the mainstream allopathic medicine can never be applied without subjective
knowledge on pathological symptoms, especially in case of an unknown disease. The mechanistic pathway
of homeopathic drug is as follows:
In case of deficiency syndrome (Type-i), malfunction, malsynthesis
or mutation of the activator protein synthesized from positive regulator of the
down-regulation , so that the synthesis
of a particular beneficial enzyme is decreased,
(Figure:4, click here to enlarge) because sensitivity of the activator to the
inducer (here substrate of the responsive enzyme) is decreased (down-regulated) due to either minute
mutation of the activator indicating slow binding rate towards the inducer, or its low synthesis rate
or due to less expression of the receptor for inducer molecules; so that the enzyme is synthesized less
body becomes deficient of some beneficial products. Hence, disease symptoms may appear. As
the homeopathic drugs, due to their minuteness cannot directly show its impact on bulky
functional enzymes, but inhibits these activators directly or indirectly, so they fall short or partially inactivated, which causes
further depletion of functional enzyme and slight Aggravation of symptom of patient occurs.
Thus, it can create a stress, so that it can be called 'stressor', which later stimulates
the synthesis of beneficial enzymes in living cells up to its requirement either by
multiplying small competent DNA segments or by division of the competent cell line
that can compensate the loss. Stimulation of these minutest deficient regulatory
proteins causes synthesis of more activator molecules to bind with enhancer element of DNA, which causes more synthesis of deficient enzyme, in any case, causes Amelioration (cure).
Homeopathic drug "Chelidonium" contains an alkaloid Chelidonine, which is a competitive inhibitor of
Cytochrome P450 3A4. (abbreviated CYP3A4) (EC 1.14. 13.97) is an important enzyme in the body,
mainly found in the liver and in the intestine. When we apply "Chelidonium" in low potency it
inhibits the said enzyme, when we use higher potency it inhibits the transcription factor.
Protective effect of minute dose drugs in transcriptional
level, i.e., during the formation of mRNA from DNA, has been proved by in vitro study also
( Ovelgonne et al, 1995;
Van Wijk et al, 1994;Wiegant et al, 1997)
When a stress, either environmental (e.g., heat), or pathogenetic (e.g., bacteria)
or toxicological (e.g., arsenic, cadmium etc.), is applied upon culture cells, their
physiological process become disordered,
causing cell damage and cell death. A low dose of the same damaging agents produces
some protective proteins (e.g. heat-shock proteins) that increase cellular tolerance.
Thus by the application of low dose of the
same damaging agents (viz. "stressors") exert a stimulatory action
on cell culture; it protects them from harmful exposures of same stress.
Hence, the reaction to the stress might be stronger than its action, which may
lead to self-recovery. The inhibitor present in homeopathic medicine should, most
possibly, be similar or semantic to the substrate of the functional enzyme, so that
it may competitively bind and inactivate the same or its activator protein, like a
and can manifest deficiency syndrome in healthy
individual during 'proving' experiment.
Allopathic medicines, on the other hand,
would supplement the product or similar substance of the
afflicted enzyme. As for example, in
Parkinson's disease , a neurodegenerative syndrome
caused by a defect in dopamine synthesizing pathway, dopamine (dihydroxy phenylalanine amine)
is supplemented as drug to suppress the disease. In some cases, slow but minute
application of L-dopa, an immediate precursor (substrate) of dopamine, like that
of homeopathic drug, was found very effective. Moreover, very low potencies of
dopa are effectively used as homeopathic medicine for the said disease. Similarly, in
hypothyroidism patients, a kind
of synthetic thyroxin
(an iodine containing hormone) is supplemented as
allopathic medicine, but when treated by homeopathy, different types of iodine
containing medicines like 'Iodum', 'Kali iod'
etc. are used to stimulate the biosynthetic pathway of thyroxin. In most cases, the
lower potency homeopathic medicines are selected based on induced pathological
symptoms, which are just opposite to allopathic drugs . However, such kind of
interrelationship can rarely be sorted out between allopathic and higher potency
homeopathic medicines, because the latter act much more upstream than the former
to the enzymes, which are directly responsible for the pathological symptoms.
Therefore, larger number of concomitant symptoms indicating mental attributes,
in addition to few pathological complaints should be counted before the final
selection of remedy.
In case of allopathic treatment of such a patient, a suitable competitive
inhibitor (negative modulator)
having structural similarity, with the substrate of the deleterious
enzyme is often
attempted, because it has high affinity for the same due to competitive
binding. It instantly
inactivates the enzyme. As for example,
is an enzyme maximally increases in patients suffering
from headache, arthritis, influenza etc. Drugs
or Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) is used to check these
diseases by inhibiting the same, but its efficacy decreases in long run producing
a 'wearing effect'.
According to most of the modern workers (Calabrese, 2008;Van
Wijk et al, 2009;Neafsey, 1990;Calabrese and Baldwin, 2002;Stebbing, 2003)
, homeopathy is
closely related to hormesis. As for
example, tolerance (expressed as Tlm or
) to a heavy metal increases in
fishes that were previously exposed to the same pollutant in minute dose
than the others of the same species. Possibly, it stimulates the
detoxification mechanism within the body. Hormesis can also be achieved
in the opposite way. Effect of heavy metal pollution in affected animals
found decreasing by post-treatment of the same or similar heavy metal
in minute dose. Probably it alerts the unaffected cells by stimulating
their detoxification machinery against pollution. Since the living
organism is going to choose from its defense array, the system of tools,
best adapted to combat the induced pathological effect, it can immunize
the unaffected cells against the incoming malefic agent earlier to its
entry. The concept of
'Hormesis' , i.e., attainment of
tolerance to a poison by minute pretreatment of the same, is therefore very similar to
', a forerunner branch of
homeopathy. It is remarkable that the first remedy introduced in
homeopathy was an isopathic one. The curative power of Peruvian bark
(Cinchona) in treating marsh-ague (Malaria) was known
during Hahnemann's time. In spite of that, some patients after the cure
of malaria frequently developed some toxicological symptoms, such as
intermittent shivering fever and attacks of various other disorders,
like trembling of limbs etc. The symptoms were observed even in healthy
persons after treating the same drug. He thus discovered the first
homeopathic remedy 'China' from the same plant in minute dose to treat
the toxicological symptoms according to the principle of isopathy.
Later, he discovered the efficacy of potentizing the medicine to
increase its curative power several fold. It is a proven fact that a
suppressive drug at high dose is inhibitory, but at low dose after
diminishing to certain threshold level, it is stimulatory. This is
because, at higher dose, the drug inhibits the respective target enzyme
of the downstream metabolites while minute dose of the same directly or
indirectly stimulates the upstream transcription factor that has
controlling influence over the synthesis of the former. After stooping
down to certain critical level the inhibitory effect becomes negligible,
only stimulatory effect persists. Hormesis may sometimes cause adverse
effect on patient's health. As for example, low doses of anti-tumor
drugs stimulate tumor growth
. Now there must be
a possibility that minute dose of a pro-tumor drug, which can grow
tumor exactly at the same location, would not fail stimulating the
anti-tumor activity in the body. This is the principle of isopathy. The
basic difference between hormesis and homeopathy is that the former is
reproducible by experimental means, but the latter is not. This is
because, in case of hormesis, the cause of symptoms is manmade and well
known, but for homeopathy, it is mostly natural and unknown, which
varies widely among individual patients. The required amount of crude
substance to induce hormesis is much higher than that of homeopathy,
because in case of the former, the drug cannot enter into the inner
chamber of a cell. According to some authors, like Van Wijk et al
(Van Wijk et al, 2009)
, who prepared a
database of experiments related to hormesis and homeopathy, both the
terms are not synonymous or even special cases of each other. Contrary
to homeopathy, hormesis also does not need any special technique to
prepare the 'active agent'. Alternatively, one cannot ignore some
similarities between homeopathy and hormesis, which suggest that there
is some connection between them, or perhaps a common basis. The Similia
Principle has been discussed in mainstream biomedicine in relation to
hormesis. Evidence in support of the phenomenon of hormesis has
accumulated year after year and the term has been applied to a variety
of stimulatory responses of otherwise toxic substances, which, in low
doses, improve health and enhance longevity (Neafsey, 1990;
Calabrese and Baldwin, 2002;Stebbing, 2003)
Homeopathy has got a special relation with immunology also. Dr. E. von Behring , who got the first Nobel Prize of medicine in 1901 for the discovery of diphtheria-antitoxin and the method of vaccination of anthrax, admitted (in a journal "Beitrage zur Experimentellen Therapie" in 1906) that the method of vaccination, though not properly understood at that time, is an application of Hahnemann's principle (Bellavite et al, 2005) . We know it true because even if the bacteria or any other micro-organisms are inactivated, heat killed or removed from the medium, the diseased exudates itself contain some antigens, which can bring almost similar symptoms, if it is injected to a healthy individual. Minute application of the same immunizes a provisional patient in a disease prone area by increasing the synthesis of antibody in his own blood. Newly discovered technique of 'patient specific vaccination' and 'therapeutic vaccination' (where specific antigens for infectious disease are used as ligand to stimulate synthesis of specific antibody, which are deficient in particular patients), are nothing but modern form of 'Nosodes' of homeopathy. The small peptides of bacterial origin present in the disease exudates, when potentized as such kind of medicine can stimulate the synthesis of transcription factors far upstream to synthesis of proper antibodies. They contain thousands of disease related products that can produce similar stress to normal healthy individuals. In case of patients, it possibly alerts the non-affected cells much earlier before the entry of parasites. Consequently, it is effective to treat the disease of particular patients. Therefore, the hypothesis, as explained here is not an over-speculative or innovative theory, but a synthetic model originated from extrapolating the existing ones. Although in many respect homeopathic drugs are similar to vaccination, because both are related to artificial induction of diseased condition, but there are some differences as follows:
Firstly, vaccination is applicable to all the patients equally, as it directly induce immunogloblin synthesis, but homeopathic vaccination is not equally applicable to all the patients. This is because, it influences the regulatory protein factors much upstream than immunoglobulin synthesis. These proteins play pivotal role in other biochemical reactions of the body also. Therefore, their deficiency may produce different concomitant symptoms in different patients in few cases. Eventually, they cannot be immunized or cured by the same medicine.
Secondly, vaccines are always composed of
exudates of the diseases tissue (which may be artificially produced nowadays), but for
homeopathic medicines nosodes, prepared from exudates, are not always applicable for all
the patients. It depends on individual combination of symptoms. In such case, medicines
of plant or mineral origin are also applicable.
There are some evil effect of vaccination than homeopathic medicine as follows:
Firstly, vaccination is administered in comparatively high dose, so it infinitely stimulates the B lymphocytes to produce immunoglobulins against the bacterial or viral proteins, which in overdose may create some problems. Although the particular bacteria or virus cannot infect the person, but he becomes susceptible to other diseases due to one-sided defense. In case of homeopathic drug, if simillimum is achieved, the individual become protected from all sides with a certain degree. Hahnemann has recorded some bad effects related to overdose of Jenner's vaccination. The patients were immune from smallpox but became susceptible to gonorrhea with many other physical ailments, he called them 'Sycotic', and got good result by treating them with some anti-sycotic homeopathic drugs (will be discussed later).
Secondly, in most cases, vaccine- induced immunoglobulin level falls sharply in one or two years, but for homeopathy as there is no steep rise of immunoglobulins, therefore the cure is almost permanent.
As a general notion, we can presume that, hormesis is
the extensive facet of immunology; whereas homeopathy is the broader aspect of
both: hormesis and immunology. Lymphocytic responses to pathogen have more complicated
regulatory network than simple example of hormesis. Therefore, we may call it as a
specialized type of hormesis. From the above discussion, it appears that hormesis
is only possible against toxic or infectious agents, but it seems not always be true.
As we witness that there are some minerals used in homeopathy that are not toxic,
like that of 'tonics' used as allopathic drugs. Then how can they produce a stress
by inhibiting an enzyme? The answer of the question is that the difference between
toxic and non-toxic substances is merely out of degree. An apparently nontoxic
element if gets the chance of entering into the innermost chambers of the cells
in excess amount it may produce a stress. Minute application of the same in potentized
form stimulates the mineral utilizing enzymes, so that the mineral cannot be deposited
excess within the cell and accumulated in suitable quantity from food and drinks. Most
functional enzymes require a small concentration of mineral salts of Na, K, Fe, Mg,
and Ca for their activity. If they become congenitally deficient in particular
tissues due to unavailability of utilizing enzymes, it can also produce serious
disease. There is no difference in opinion in compensating the same between the two
disciplines of medicine, but the way of administration differs. If they are compensated
in higher dose, as in allopathic drugs, the tissues cannot hold the same and they are
eliminated from the body as sweat, urine, and stool. If they are gradually compensated
in dry potentized form with lactose, they can be stored within the body. This is the
basic principle of biochemic system
of medicine, according to many it is a sister branch of homeopathy, discovered
Schussler , where deficiency
symptom of twelve mineral salts on healthy person instead of 'proving
symptoms' was considered in suggesting remedies.
We know that though all the cells of our body arise from a single cell by cell division. but all of them even in the same tissue are not completely identical, but bear minute genetic variations that are indicated by their DNA sequence, especially in the junk (non-coding) DNA region. Likewise, all the cells of a tissue of a chronic diseased individual, therefore, does not remain equally affected; some are badly affected, while others are semi-normal or normal. There may be several reasons behind, but the predominant one is due to place changes of 'jumping gene' (or transposable elements ). These are equivalent to Plasmids of bacteria. When such organisms are exposed to stress in environment or exposed to antibiotics these circular elements, which remain transposed into bacterial DNA to bring genetic variability to grow resistance against drugs. The most efficient clones multiply in natural environment. Similarly, 'jumping genes' of higher organisms can bear the stress of living in a natural environment. By the same way good quality cells, which can tolerate natural environment thrive well but the incompetent ones die. Thus stress can increases genetic quality of a tissue. On the other hand, competent cells in a tissue decreases due to several other factors. The predominant one is age. In spite of existence of some preventive genetic mechanisms, some minute errors or mutations occur spontaneously in the genes and with the advent of millions of cell division cycles it creeps into a significant level. With the increase of age the chance of accumulation of deleterious mutations increases and thus the cell becomes weaker we grow old and die. Allopathic drugs, being the artificial stress-removers supports the cells, which have undergone undesirable mutations. They make the cellular environment highly favorable for all the cells including the incompetent ones, which get plenty opportunity to grow. The disease symptoms are removed soon and the patient appears to be recovering by the drug, but soon the tissue becomes an abode of worse affected cells, which outnumber the healthy ones and the medicinal dose elevates due to fall of efficacy in course, called 'wearing effect'. As a result, the dose of allopathic drugs increases frequently and they are deposited in healthy tissues, which causes severe side effects. This type of fostering of worse and worst cell line possibly gave rise to cancerous cell type after several generations of dependence over allopathic treatment. Even if the drug is withdrawn after habitual use, several new complaints arise due to ' withdrawal effect ' and ultimately the old disease returns with all pathological symptoms, causing ' rebound effect '.Conversely, if we are able to put an artificial stress by the use of homeopathic drugs to the gene pool the wrong sequenced cells will be to some extent outnumbered by healthy ones. The above-said menaces are totally absent in homeopathic medicines, but cure sometimes takes longer time than allopathic drugs, because it acts much upstream than the latter. Unlike allopathic drugs, the homeopathic ones can decrease the number of incompetent cells in the diseased tissue during the successive generations of cell cycle. The genetically better and best favorable cells that are able to combat with the stress survive and multiply more rapidly than the diseased ones as in clonal selection model (Figure:6, click here to enlarge). The disease would eventually be cure and no more medicine would be required.
We know that homeopathic drugs are effective not only in dividing cells
but also in non-dividing ones. Although, the nerve cells cannot divide, it can more effectively
produce a variety of protein molecules, called neuropeptides
of mRNA to combat the stressor. There are several minute
enzymes associated with their synthesis, might be stimulated by homeopathic drug.
Specialized types of cells cannot produce variety of enzymes, most of them remain
'switched off', some are synthesized as 'house keeping enzymes', a very few are
expressed as specialized one in bulky amount, as for example, trypsin is secreted
only from pancreatic cells, deficiency of which can produce few pathological
complaints (e.g., indigestion), but not a generalized
symptom. Conversely, different personality, and several mental attributes, which
are controlled by the synthesis of hormones, is attributed to the neuropeptides.
Larger number of genes is expressed in
nerve cells and their deficiency can produce complete generalized symptoms (e.g.,
burning sensation all over the body), which are more important in selecting
homeopathic remedy. There are adequate experimental evidences showing that nervous
system gets easily stimulated by homeopathic drugs than other organs. Hence, personality,
sensations, inclination, and aversions of the patients are so helpful in screening
out the actual remedy. Special emphasis on mental symptoms of the patient in
selecting remedy were much essential than wasting time
for common pathological ones that are seen in every patients suffering from a
particular disease. In that respect, Hahnemann was much more prudent than his
contemporary physicians were, because he gave supreme
emphasis on mental attribute of the patients in selecting remedies, which
differentiates one person from other. All the DNA segments for of
of a patient are not equipped enough to synthesize a
desirable neuropeptide; some among them are favorable. The most favorable minute
DNA segments having maximum capacity to struggle with the stress by means of
desirable neuropeptide synthesis possibly make some more copies of the same in junk DNA as
transposable elements, when there is a real necessity. It is 'copied and pasted'
over the genome, while the undesirable DNA segments for neuropeptides gradually becomes
outnumbered. Initially, when first discovered 40 years ago, junk DNA had no known
biological function. Later it has been proved that the small mutant sequence upon
the junk DNA might alter due to selection pressure.
Many types of non-coding DNA sequences do have important biological functions,
including the transcriptional and translational regulation of protein-coding
sequences. The hypothesis that the disease-causing
genetic variants lie in the non-coding DNA (Cobb et al, 2008)
was proved much later and it can be inferred that the 'stressors' present in homeopathic
medicine can produce an artificial selection pressure to rectify the altered DNA
sequence by 'copy and paste' of favorable elements. The idea is therefore synonymous
to the concept of
of Richard Dawkins. 'Selfish', when applied to genes,
does not mean 'self-centered' at all. It means, instead, an extremely important
quality, for which there is no good word in the English language: 'the quality of
being copied by a Darwinian selection process' as we have already explained it in
case of multiplication of healthier cells in a diseased tissue according to 'clonal
selection model'. Stress can therefore induce multiplication of transposable element
over the genome and the theory has been supported by experimental evidences (Pecinka and Mittelsten
as well. The allopathic drugs, on the other hand, are artificial stress-removers
that make the cellular environment highly favorable for replication of all the DNA
fragments including the incompetent ones, which get lavish opportunity to increase
in number by copy and paste method of the transposable elements. Soon the genome
becomes an abode of incompetent DNA segments, which outnumber the desirable ones.
As for example, a man being ill with insomnia if begins consuming sleeping pills
every day, he soon becomes more and more dependent upon the medicine, its dose steadily
increases. Although the same thing may occur naturally in diseased individuals, and we
may call it an obstinate and chronic disease. In such case degeneration of organs occur
with the advent of age.
Hahnemann has said that homeopathy is the new school
of medicine while Allopathy is the old one. It is often said that Homeopathy is the opposite (parallel) method of treatment to that of
Both homeopathy and allopathic
method intend to give relief to a particular patient by following definite and discrete
principles: Homeopathy cures by 'similia similibus curantur' (like cures like)
principle of Hahnemann of nineteenth century, while allopathy by 'contraria contrariis
curantur' (opposite cures
opposite) logic of Galen of seventeenth century, but they are not both sides of the
same coin. We have observed that all the patient suffering from a particular disease, say
headache, are not curable by the same homeopathic drug. This is because Cause, Onset, Location,
Sensation, Concomitant, Aggravation and Amelioration of the disease may be different in different
groups of patients. So that different drugs are applied in different patient. As for example,
headache caused by exposure to sun, sudden and violent onset, location at right side of forehead,
sensation of throbbing pain, concomitant of red face, often with pain of eyeballs, aggravation from
slight motion, amelioration by tight bandage is an indication of 'Belladonna'. On the other hand,
headache in drunkards, caused by high blood pressure, slow onset, left sided headache (located at left),
sensation as all blood has gone to head, sensation of bursting pain, aggravation from motion, after
sleep and amelioration by menstrual flow is an indication of homeopathic drug 'Lachesis'. Therefore,
we cannot make a patent of homeopathic drug. This is because the minute regulatory proteins located
much upstream of a metabolic pathway and can act as limiting factors of a large number of functional
enzymes much downstream and can produce some pathological as well as some non-pathological symptoms.
The latter apparently has no direct relation with the disease proper but can act as a cause to bring
peculiar nature of Onset, Location, Sensation, Concomitant symptoms, and modalities (Aggravation and Amelioration)
in different patients who are suffering from deficiency of different factors. It can be understood by the mode
of functioning of hormones and enzymes. Hormones are generally located much upstream than enzymes, so their
deficiency brings much more symptoms than the latter. These symptoms also help us to locate responsive
endocrine glands. If we use inhibitors of these hormones, several symptoms may grow in long run. In 'Proving'
experiments the many peculiar symptoms are artificially induced in healthy persons indicating the character
of medicines. Peculiarity in Cause, Onset, Location, Sensation, Concomitant, Aggravation and Amelioration
of the disease in patients and their similarity with 'proving symptoms' by the same way helps us to identify
the responsive minute protein factor in terms of medicine as discussed in the text. Conversely, the same
allopathic drug can 'act upon' almost all the headache patients; as for example, Aspirin can give temporary
relief to almost all such patients; so that we can make its patent. Therefore, Allopathy is a disease
specific method of treatment. We shall now discuss the ultimate difference between the two systems as
evident from the previous sections.
A simple observation can prove that allopathy
is a suppressive method of treatment but homeopathy is a stimulatory one.
Application of an allopathic medicine on healthy person brings symptoms opposite to the
disease it cures, because the medicines are stress removers. Homeopathy, on the other hand,
brings symptoms similar to disease it cures, because the medicines are 'stressors'. When an allopathic medicine is applied to a
healthy person, the symptoms opposite to the disease are generated. As for example,
an allopathic drug, which is suitable for high blood pressure patient would
remarkably decrease the blood pressure of a healthy person. Hence, it is a suppressive
method. Homeopathic medicines, conversely, can produce symptoms to the healthy person,
similar to the disease, so it is a stimulatory method of treatment. For instance, sulfur
is directly used as allopathic medicine to cure skin diseases, but homeopathic drug
'Sulphur' removes the diseases created by allopathic application of sulfur, therefore
skin disease, suppressed by the former sometimes recurs for few days before the final
recovery. The curative power of Peruvian bark
(Cinchona) in treating marsh-ague (Malaria) in allopathy and curing medicine related symptoms in homeopathy is another example.
From the beginning, there was a confrontation between existing 'old school' of
medical system ('allopathy') and homeopathy. Allopathic system were deluded with
almost instantaneous amelioration ("Organon", 6th ed Aphorism 56), which
was just opposite to homeopathic principles. Hahnemann regretted that this 'old
school' of medicine does not try to find out 'prima causa morbi', i.e., the hidden
root-cause behind morbid symptoms ("Organon", 5th ed. Aphorism 6, footnote),
hence he termed allopathy as a 'non-healing art', as it renders simple diseaseAphorism into a
chronic and incurable one ("Organon", 5th ed. Aphorism 75). Modern form of
allopathic system suggests that malfunction or malsynthesis of particular enzymes,
guided by genes, is the 'root cause' of almost all chronic diseases, but the mode of
its treatment by suppressing the disease symptoms has not changed much since Hahnemann's
time. It gives a very little emphasis to arouse the internal mechanism of human body or
any other organism, unlike that of inanimate ones, to fight against diseases. We should
never forget that human body is like complicated auto-recoverable machine. Therefore,
the mechanism of cure of almost all the chronic diseases remains hidden within that
machine itself. Homeopathic medicines, being similar to the disease causing factors,
actually intend to stimulate the curative factors, which definitely subsides the
disease causing agents. Thus the homeopathic medicine shows aggravation as 'primary
effect' and amelioration as 'secondary effect'. The
allopathic medicines counter the disease- causing factors directly. As a result, the
'primary effect' of an allopathic drug always ameliorates, while 'secondary
effect' aggravates. Therefore, most allopathic drugs are used lifelong for chronic
diseases, notwithstanding the risk of side effects and 'wearing effect' i.e., loss
of efficacy in long run. In case any homeopathic medicine causes slight amelioration
of a chronic disease at the beginning, we should think that it is 'more allopathic'
than homeopathic, and the remedy has not been properly selected. In long run, it would
aggravate the disease, as suggested by
Hahnemann also. This is because; it is trying to suppress the symptoms by inhibiting
the disease causing agents. In most cases, these are related to malfunction of some
functional enzymes, gene products, or caused by some parasites, pollutants or other
external factors. Even when the said enzymes are extracted from human body (cell-free
system) they are affected by allopathic drugs. On the other hand, homeopathic medicine
seems to function much upstream to that of functional enzymes. Hence, the effect of
such medicine cannot be demonstrated in cell-free system, like that of an allopathic
drug, which directly acts upon functional
enzymes. Many says that homeopathic drugs have no effect because these are non-reproducible.
This question does not arise in allopathic
drug, because it is applied in a larger dose that can suppress a known deleterious
enzyme or any other protein factor, even outside patient's body and terminates the
synthesis of offensive products.
From the above discussion, it can be inferred
that homeopathic drugs have more penetrating ability than allopathic ones. As a general rule
deficiency of beneficial metabolites, as well as abundance of
deleterious product, both may be caused by deficit of minutest
regulatory proteins. Hence, deficiency of the same is the limiting factor for all
natural chronic diseases. Hahnemann's 'law of minimum' is applicable for homeopathic drugs.
On the other hand, Allopathic drugs always consider the 'law of maximum'. Therefore, the approach of
homeopathic and allopathic drugs is just opposite (Table 1)
. Each homeopathic medicine
is applicable to minimum number of patients suffering from a particular
disease, based on minimal pathological complaints, but many concomitant symptoms
and semantic to the stress of deleterious metabolites. It not only administers minimum quantity
drugs, but indirectly considers
the minutest proteins as limiting factors that
are minimally available in the patient's body, but have controlling
influence over the bulky functional enzymes. These seem to be nothing
but minute enzymes or transcription factors, having influence over the overall
metabolism. Allopathy, on the other hand, treats the symptoms, which is maximally available
among the diseased individuals, and antagonistic to the stress of deleterious
metabolites. Each drug is applicable to maximum number of
patients suffering from a particular disease where maximal pathological
complaints match, with less emphasis on concomitant ones.
In the previous section we have seen that, for deficiency syndrome
of a beneficial enzyme, homeopathic drug is similar to its substrate, but allopathic
drug acts like its product. Conversely, for abundance syndrome of a deleterious enzyme, homeopathic
drug is similar to its product and allopathic drug mimics its substrate. We have
observed in lower organism like bacteria, that minute quantity of substrate or product of
an enzyme (or similar other substance) can trigger regulatory pathway, but it is not always
seen in higher animals, because the ultimate regulatory gene is located much upstream to
the functional enzymes. Hence, the difference between allopathic and
homeopathic medicine cannot be established by 'substrate-product relationship', but it
lies only in opposite mode of action. Thus, the allopathic drugs are never 'stressors' like that of homeopathic
ones, but 'stress-removers'. Although, initially they remove the stress, but finally,
in course of further application, the disease symptoms become worse, because there is
no urge left within the cell to get rid of the stress. Hence, the genetic or familial
diseases in most cases remains incurable by allopathy, but to some extent curable by homeopathy.
It is an interesting fact that allopathic doctors does not always follow allopathic
principles and some homeopathic doctors do not purely follow homeopathic principle. Allopathy, the mainstream medicines,
are actually a generalized mode of treatment and
applicable to all the patients suffering from the same ailments. Hence, no individualization
is required. However, individualistic treatment has recently been incorporated in the mainstream medicinal
science (will be discussed later).
Supplementation of vitamin and mineral has been included in both the system of medicine,
but homeopathic practitioners generally do not encourage medicinal application of vitamins.
functional enzymes require a small concentration of mineral salts of Na, K, Fe, Mg,
and Ca for their activity. If they become congenitally deficient in particular
tissues due to unavailability of utilizing enzymes, it can also produce serious
disease. There is no difference in opinion in compensating the same between the two
disciplines of medicine, but the way of administration differs. If they are compensated
in higher dose, as in allopathic drugs, the tissues cannot hold the same and they are
eliminated from the body as sweat, urine, and stool. If they are gradually compensated
in dry potentized form with lactose, they can be stored within the body. This is the
basic principle of biochemic system
of medicine, according to many it is a sister branch of homeopathy, discovered
Schussler , where deficiency
symptom of twelve mineral salts on healthy person instead of 'proving
symptoms' was considered in suggesting remedies.
Homeopathic doctors generally record the symptoms from each patient minutely, yet some condition may appear when individual symptoms
from each patients cannot be recorded by any means. In order to combat against highly contagious diseases like smallpox,
a principle was suggested by Master Hahnemann called 'Genus Epidemicus'.
He has directed to treat them according to the said principle for
each particular locality. The doctors should record 5 to 6 prime symptoms from few patients that are peculiar and different
from pathological symptoms. Then he would select a medicine accordingly and apply to all the patients like that of allopathic practitioners. There would be a high
chance of recovery. This is because in that particular locality there is a possibility that all the individuals were affected from
the same strain of that virus (i.e., 'Contagious Principle' is the same). As cause is very important in selecting remedy for homeopathy. Therefore even few concomitant
symptoms can rightly suggest the remedy. For the treatment of Corona it is highly applicable, though it is very difficult to screen out the most peculiar symptoms.
Yet, in a broader sense, the method of
vaccination, which was invented earlier than homeopathy, is an application of homeopathic
principle, though there was no individualization required, because it becomes effective
upon antibodies and antigenic receptors, located much downstream in the synthetic pathway,
while in homeopathy the target factors are located much upstream. Vaccination is comparable to Isopathy, a sister branch
of homeopathy, but homeopathic vaccination is to some extent different from isopathy,
because, several other drug materials apart from the pathogen can be used as immunogen.
The modern science of medicine is therefore sometimes
stimulatory, sometimes suppressive and sometimes compensatory or supportive method of
treatment. It is neither homeopathic, nor allopathic it might be called 'heteropathic'.
Such exceptions are included in homeopathy even. Application of 'Mother Tincture' i.e., the
crude extract of drug without dilution and potentization, work like allopathic drugs. It is therefore prohibited
in homeopathy, but still they are in use.
Even some drugs are there that have been included without 'proving',
which are antagonistic to the principle of homeopathy. Palliative treatment, like that of allopathy,
is applicable for homeopathy too in some restricted cases. The ultimate moto of all science of medicines
is to cure a patient, so that all can work together in a common platform. The following table shows the
ultimate differences between homeopathic and allopathic practices:
(as concluded from the discussion in text)
1. Basic Principle
'Contraria contrariis curantur' (opposite cures opposite)
'Similia similibus curantur' (like cures like)
2. Induced symptoms by application on healthy person
Opposite to the disease.
Similar to the disease.
3. Required Dose
4. Penetration ability
5. Treatment Method
6. Aggravation and amelioration cycle
Primarily ameliorates but secondarily aggravates.
Primarily aggravates but secondarily ameliorates.
7. Place of action in a cell/body
8. Action on metabolic pathway
9. Number of competent cell line in the tissue
10. Selection of Drug
Patient specific (to some extent)
12. Requirement of knowledge on pathology for treatment
In spite of so many negative points we cannot totally
reject allopathic treatment for its life saving potential. In acute cases, where
recording of symptoms is impossible allopathic medicine saves life of the patients.
Sometimes it is seen that withdrawal symptoms may arise for chronic patients
habituated for allopathic drug for a long time after sudden withdrawing of the
same. Sometimes administration of both the drugs simultaneously cannot be avoided
for that reason. As the homeopathic drug works, according to Figure 4-5, much
upstream than allopathic one its efficacy cannot be affected by the latter. After
certain span of time, during convalescence, allopathic medicines should slowly
be withdrawn leaving no withdrawal symptom. After few months, the already suppressed
symptoms may recur and they should be treated with homeopathic drug only. In addition
to that, allopathic treatment cannot be nullified in some cases. Patients suffering
from surgical removal of vital organ, or having congenital chromosomal or genetic
defect involving the whole body cannot be treated pragmatically by homeopathic means.
After total necrosis or destruction of the tissue or organ, the latter is ineffective.
Here allopathic treatment is the only resort.
The concept of mysterious vital activity was not Hahnemann's own theory; it originated from the idea of C.F.Wolff (1738-1794), who was the teacher of famous biologist von Baer . Hahnemann believed in spiritual power or 'vital force' that made the difference between animate and inanimate objects ("Organon", 5th ed. Aphorism 9-10). He defined the life as a combination of body, mind, and spirit. The said autocratic force that makes the material body dynamic is actually the 'vital force'. According to him 'vital force' is a spirit like, dynamic automatic power present everywhere in the body, which animates our body and preserves life in living being ("Organon", 5th ed Aphorism15). Later he termed it as 'vital energy' ("Organon", 6th ed. Aphorism12). He gave much emphasis on derangement of 'vital force' ("Organon", 5th ed. Aphorism11-12) in diseased individuals, but never explained it. A person, according to him, falls ill if his 'vital force' is morbidly affected by 'disease force'. The idea of affection of 'vital force' by 'disease force' is the sole contribution of Hahnemann. He has described 'disease force' in terms of 'spirit-like power', similar to that of 'vital force'. According to him diseases are not mechanical or chemical alterations of the material substance of the body and not dependent on material morbific substance, but they are merely spiritual dynamic derangements of life ("Organon", 5th ed Aphorism 31 footnote). He did the same analysis for homeopathic medicines also. He termed the curative power of homeopathic drug as 'medicinal force' ("Organon", 5th ed Aphorism 20, 30-33). Hahnemann felt that affliction to 'vital force' by polluting agents is the cause of all ailments, but he neither defined vital activity in terms of material science nor 'disease force'. The body endowed with 'vital force' is constantly fighting with all inimical noxious influences or forces, but either due to long continuous exposure or due to greater strength of 'disease forces' or irregularities in everyday life 'vital force' is deranged, the individual becomes susceptible for disease, which according to him has no separate objective existence. In some cases, the 'disease force' is so strong (e.g., Cancer) that 'medicinal force' cannot arouse sufficient 'vital force' to drive away the disease force, especially in old, weaker and immuno-compromized patients, who have undergone critical surgery, who consume allopathic medicines regularly, exposed to environmental pollution, radiation etc. get easily affected. In such cases, the patient only manifest common pathological symptoms, except the concomitant ones. Hence, the doctor cannot suggest any suitable remedy. Hahnemann has said that these diseases are incurable by homeopathic means. i.e., the 'medicinal force' won't be able to stimulate the 'vital force' rendering the disease incurable. The same thing occurs in "Genetically Engineered" Corona virus, especially while affecting some old weaker patients. Hence, such patients cannot be treated by homeopathic means. Discovery of vaccines for Corona virus is nothing but application of Similia principle. Because, some vaccines are prepared from spike proteins of virus, others are from mRNA, even from attenuated virus in inactive form. All are able to produce disease like symptoms upon healthy individual in tolerable extent. Thus it is conceptually similar to Similia Principle. However, it is quite different from homeopathy, because the target proteins of the latter are not immunoglobulins, but the minute enzymes or transcription factors much upstream to the synthetic pathway of the same, which can be indirectly detected in terms of medicinal symptoms.
It may be predicted that the newly evolved Corona, like that of cancer and AIDS in near future will be considered as a chronic disease. No doctor can
claim that he can surely cure newly evolved Corona virus (Covid-19), the possible reasons are stated below.
The primary infecting agent (Corona) in the form of RNA covered by lipoprotein convert itself from RNA to DNA by enzyme
reverse transcriptase after entering patient cell like that of AIDS (HIV) virus. It becomes incorporated with the host DNA, produce RNA again, lastly
new off-springs of Corona virus with RNA core and lipoprotein coat are formed in millions. In case of AIDS, these million off-springs kill helper T lymphocyes
in human blood, so that general immunity is lost. In other words, 'vital force' is deranged. Strikingly, some success has been achieved in homeopathic treatment for AIDS and Corona.
Although the same medicine might not be effective to all the patients due to minute
difference in concomitant symptoms, which indicate difference in affection of minute biochemical pathways. As for example,
all the patients of influenza do not show identical combination of symptoms, even if they were affected by the same virus
in the same locality. The specific sensation, concomitant and modalities (aggravation and amelioration) may differ. In some
cases, cough is dry or croup or chesty. Dry persistent cough aggravated by talking indicates 'Phosphorus'. Conversely, dry
spasmatic cough with high fever delirium and headache is a sign of 'Belledonna'. Thus the critical patients can be treated accordingly.
Several preventive medicines are being applied by the homeopathic doctors to prevent Corona based on initial
symptoms. It includes 'Arsenic', 'Aconite', 'Belladonna', 'Eupetorium', 'Gelsemium', 'Bryonia', 'Phosphorus', 'Kali Carb', 'Pulsatilla', 'Nux Vomica',
Ipecac etc. 'Arsenic 30' has been considered by the doctors as prime medicine for Corona, They may increase
natural immunity against viruses from very premature stage of affection. Had Hahnemann was living in
these days, he would have certainly opted for Nosode drug from saliva of patients to prevent Corona in addition to these. Several
Nosodes were prepared from diseased tissue exudates, e.g., 'Psorinum' from Skin-rash exudate, 'Tuberculinum' from tubercular exudate,
'Variolinum' from chicken pox exudate, 'Medorrhinum' from gonorrhea exudate, 'Syphilinum' from syphilis exudates and so on. Nosodes
prevent the chances of future infection, but this is the very early stage of disease infestation, hence, it would require some months
for standardization and to notify the proving symptoms from healthy persons. Some companies have already marketed 'Rota Corona vaccine'
Nosod, prepared from cow and cat (bovine or feline) resources, because preparation of Corona virus nosode from human resources has not
been declared safe. Moreover, though the working principle of nosodes, according to many, are similar to vaccination, but they
cannot be substitute of a vaccine. This is because vaccine directly can stimulate antibody formation therefore equally effective for
every human beings, but nosodes work much upstream than synthetic pathway of antibodies, therefore, it may bring some concomitant symptoms
apparently unrelated to pathological symptoms of Corona virus to 'prover'. Hence, recording of proving symptoms are so important. Nowadays,
such type of experimentation on human beings is a subject of legal perturb, so that cannot be performed easily. There is chance that like
that of psora, sycotic, syphilic and tubercular miasm Corona would be a cause of long lasting genetic defect of human being in future.
Such miasms genetically (by mutation) make human body a potential harbor of certain infections, as tubercular infection may recur after stoppage of
allopathic drug after some months. They also make the body susceptible to some chronic diseases not apparently related to the said
contagion, as for example, syphilitic miasm has been correlated with cardiac disease. As the miasms are being effectively treated
by nosodes in addition to the above mentioned medicines, a suitable nosode will also be developed for Corona to treat the related problem in future.
Much before Hahnemann's era, Zacutus
Lusitannus described a patient in mid 1600s, whose urine turned black in
alkaptonuria , but otherwise he
was healthy, he got married and begat a large family.
A.E.Garrod , a British physician,
minutely observed the same metabolic disorders among his patients, and
at the very beginning of twentieth century, he first proposed in his
famous book "Inborn Errors of Metabolism" that specific symptoms might
be caused by metabolic disorders due to enzyme deficiency or mutation. It was later
summarized that some enzymes, responsible for breaking of homogentisic
acid (homogentisate oxidase), were either absent or mutant (inactive) in
alkaptonuria patients. Therefore, there was an overflow of Homogentisic
acid, which was accumulated in blood of patient and excreted through
urine, where it was oxidized and polymerized into to a melanin-like
substance, which turned black in air. The same metabolic pathway, which
begins with the ingestion of phenylalanine, was later shown to be linked with
tyrosine. Breaking of the pathway at various steps, due to deficiency of enzyme, could produce three diseases:
phenylketonuria (PKU) ,
with specific combination of symptoms. Phenylketoneuria
is caused due to lack of enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. The patients were mentally
retarded and majority of them
generally used to die before the age of twenty
(Figure:7, click here to enlarge).
Phenylpyruvate, a product of phenylalanine, was present in urine as an overflowing
product, which turned olive green in color by the addition of ferric chloride. Since phenylalanine
hydroxylase is metabolically linked with tyrosinase, an enzyme that converts tyrosine to dopa
(dihydroxy phenylalanine) towards the pathway of melanin synthesis, PKU patients show less
pigmentation in skin and hair. Here dopa is the deficient
Whatever be the cause of chronic diseases they may be
grouped under two broad categories: curable or incurable. It was later predicted
that more than two thousand human metabolic disorders responsible for chronic
diseases are caused by malsynthesis of some enzymes, most of them are incurable, because they
are congenital, caused by mutation of structural gene, and they do not have natural course of
aggravation and amelioration cycle. It means they
are non-dynamic diseases, so are incurable by homeopathy. So, any sorts of 'Proving' experiments
cannot produce similar symptoms on healthy individuals. If the curable ailments are
wrongly treated by allopathic drugs for several years or even generations, dynamic
nature of the disease is lost.
Homeopathic treatment is only possible for dynamic diseases; it means the disease
involves a large number of dividing cells or multiple duplicating segments of DNA.
Others are caused by sudden somatic mutation of DNA due to infectious diseases,
pollution, allopathic treatment, life style problem, etc. and therefore are curable.
Such kinds of diseases are dynamic in nature. It indicates that the genetic
constitution is not so static. For a dynamic disease we should consider the metabolic
blockage movable, but for congenital and non-dynamic diseases (e.g., Phenylketonurea)
the blockage is fixed, so that we should admit those are incurable even by homeopathic
means. However, all the human metabolic disorders, curable or incurable, are caused by
external agents that act upon the individual himself or his ancestors. It causes some
kind of obstacles in the metabolic pathway. They can be well represented by 'branching
water pipe model', where blockage at any point of the pipe may cause deficient flow of
some and overflow at other pipes
(Figure:8A, click here to enlarge)
, so that specific combination of symptoms arises
When the blockage moves from downstream to upstream, greater alteration of
flow rate occurs, more and more complicated symptoms arise. Flow of water in the
branching water pipe represents 'vital force'. Although we cannot visualize the
'vital force' or 'energy', but can realize its existence by forceful flow of
enzymes that digest away the food materials, gentle secretion of hormones that control
activity of enzymes, synthesis of defensive proteins that protect our body from parasites,
and rapid synthesis of detoxifying proteins that protect our body from pollutants and poisons.
However, the over secretion of hormones that causes some diseases is not an indication of
'vital force', but the inefficacy of regulatory proteins that control secretion of hormones
or tumor in the respective endocrine gland. The negative force, which afflicts the 'vital
force' and causes overburdening of our body with parasites, pollutants, deleterious metabolites,
etc., and reduce the normal flow of useful metabolites, might be called 'disease force', which
may represent a blockage in the metabolic pipelines. 'Medicinal force' (homeopathic), on the
other hand, is a minute form of force that mimics 'disease force'. It causes stimulation of
'vital force' at the deeper portion (upstream) of the metabolic pathway, so that the obstacle:
living, non-living, or just a virtual one, flows away through the pipes. It can be analogized
with 'hammering', a type of mechanical procedure, by which the plumbers clear choked water pipe.
Noticeably, 'vital force' always spurts from inside to outside of human body. On the contrary,
'disease force' and 'medicinal force' as well, according to Hahnemann's logic, always invade
from outside to inside, though the latter is much faster to penetrate the human body than the
former due to high dilution of the same
Mainstream medicinal science has described the cause
of illness of human being may be external (i.e., environmental, bacterial, viral, or pollution
related) or internal (mostly genetic) or both. Conversely, according to homeopathic science of
medicine, all the chronic diseases are mostly extrinsic (external) in origin. Then what happens
for the genetic and 'familial diseases'? If we think it in a subtler way we would be able to find
the answer. Although genetic diseases appear to be intrinsic (internal) for an individual,
but actually caused by extrinsic factors gathered by mutation of the genome of his ancestral
generations. So long the 'vital force' remains strong enough it prevents mutation of the genome,
but when it gets weaker, the external disease causing factor can induce mutation of the genome.
We consider life as a complete lineage of organisms, not merely an individual.
Consequently, when the mutant gene is carried to the next generations the disease seems to be
'internal' in origin, but actually it is 'external'. Hence, the 'disease force' is always external.
In a simpler way, a blockage at particular point of
branching metabolic pipelines might be called 'root cause of the disease' and
the 'force' which holds the blockage at that particular location is synonymous
to 'disease force'. In case of curable diseases, it always maintains a dynamic
equilibrium with 'vital force'. Therefore, there is always an
aggravation-amelioration cycle: in the presence of some particular external
factors the disease symptoms aggravate and in others they ameliorate. Sometimes
it becomes very difficult to notice medicinal aggravation of a chronic disease,
though it always happens by the application of a successful medicine. Amelioration
occurs in due course. However, in case when the 'disease force' is much stronger
than 'vital force' (e.g., neural degeneration) there is only aggravation, but
no amelioration. These are also regarded as chronic and almost incurable
diseases, where the atrophy of organ cannot be prevented by any medicine.
Non-dynamic diseases (e.g., Phenylketonuria), as we have mentioned earlier,
are totally incurable. Conversely, for chronic dynamic curable diseases,
after the application of 'medicinal force', as Hahnemann has said, the
symptoms disappear in reverse order of their appearance; and prior to
their final recovery, the oldest symptom returns. This can be analogized
with the outward motion of the blockage by the pressure of water flow
("vital force") in branching water pipes. Hammering at that particular
location of branching water pipe (by means of homeopathic remedy),
causes upstream to downstream movement of the blockage, so that the
blockage moves back to its original position during entrance. Gradually
the diseased cells from inner to outer portions of a tissue regain
their initial physiological status. The disease, which was originally
suppressed by allopathic treatment, may recur, but soon disappears.
It appears that older symptoms are returning. Actually, the bunch of
immunity cells (or those who are related to recovery), stimulated by
homeopathic remedy, 'runs after' the concealed pathogen, which comes
out from their hiding places and manifests some itches and eruptions
again before their final departure. This can also occur for metabolic
diseases. After the rectification of synthesis, the rate of synthesis
of upstream metabolites and then the downstream metabolites are
gradually normalized and return to the initial state of disease, and
Recording of the symptoms of a patient, as suggested
by Hahnemann in "Organon 5th Ed", aphorism 84-92, in terms of particular drug
might be called 'anamnesis'. When we cannot directly visualize the probable cause of a
disease but realize it indirectly from the medicinal symptoms by deductive method,
it is called anamnesis; but when can visualize the cause by direct experiment, and
sort out the probable symptoms by inductive method,
it is diagnosis. 'Anamnesis' differs from 'diagnosis' that the latter finds
out the actual cause of the disease directly in terms of pathogen or afflicted
metabolite, as suggested by modern allopathic system. Phenylpyruvate test in
urine of PKU patients, as we have mentioned above, is a diagnostic tool,
which indicates that deficiency of an enzyme, phenylalanine hydroxylase,
is the cause of disease. On the contrary, anamnesis can locate the deficient
enzyme indirectly in terms of medicine that can induce similar symptoms related to the disease in healthy persons, which actually may indicate inhibition of
the same or similar enzyme. As for example, oudenone and its derivatives are
strong inhibitors of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Hence, if oudenone is applied
upon a healthy person he would manifest some symptoms like PKU patients.
The patients those who are originally manifesting similar symptoms would
be termed as 'oudenone patients', not 'Phenylketonuria patients'. Homeopathy follows such anamnesis principle,
but since those enzymes that are inhibited by the same are extremely minute
and almost non-detectable by conventional biochemical assays, direct diagnosis
of their insufficiency is rather difficult. Take another example, symptoms like
intermittent shivering fever and attacks of various other disorders, like
trembling of limbs etc. is caused by Peruvian bark (Cinchona). These
are also curable by minute application of the same as homeopathic medicine
("China"). Hence, the disease is named, according to Hahnemann, in terms of
medicine (Anamnesis), which can induce the symptoms in healthy person.
Conversely, if we try to investigate the cause, there might be malarial
parasite in the patient's RBC, it will then be called Malaria disease
(Diagnosis), which can be treated with higher dose of Peruvian bark (Quinine).
As in branching water pipes, the location of
single blockage can be identified by observing the flow-rates of each pipe
; likewise, identification of rate limiting enzymes in human
metabolism is possible by observing quantity of known metabolites.
Actually, it is done by means of clinical tests of blood, urine,
stool, sputum, sweat etc. As for example, overflow of glucose
in urine represents deficiency of insulin hormone, indicating
predisposition of several other diseases. These can be successfully treated
by homeopathy after minutely studying specific combination of symptoms, not only
concomitants but also pathological ones. As for instance, 'Abroma augusta' and
'Cholesterinum' are used in high blood sugar and high blood cholesterol patients
respectively. On the other hand, Hyperlipidemia can be treated by different drugs
after indirectly locating the metabolic blocks by studying specific combination of
symptoms. 'Urenium nitricum' is used for diabetes and cholesterol; it means that the
medicine might have influence upon common metabolic pathway of carbohydrate and fat
utilization. Liewise, 'Allium sativum' in lower potency is applied if there are blockage
in both Cholerterol and triglyceride metabolism; 'Calcarea carb' for overweight and cholesterol;
'Baryta mur' for hypertension and cholesterol patients. Thus, lower potency drugs can be suggested
by merely observing the combination of pathological symptoms.
Hahnemann has observed that when treated with a successful remedy,
the comparatively recent symptoms of a chronic disease disappear first, but the comparatively
old symptoms, which might be previously suppressed by allopathic drugs, return sequentially
in a mild degree when a suitable homeopathic drug is applied ("Organon", 5th ed Aphorism 280). The
oldest or the fundamental symptom returns before few days when the patient becomes almost cure.
Hering's law of cure is the more precise form of the statement. Based on similar observation
Dr Constantine Hering (1800-1880), the favorite disciple of Hahnemann, has suggested possible
direction of curation by the application of a medicine. It postulates that the direction of
'disease force', as well as 'medicinal force' is always 'exterior to interior', but the direction of cure is always 'interior
to exterior'. We have observed that some diseases of human beings are internal, while others are external.
According to the notion of Hering the diseases appear to be endogenous are actually exogenous in origin,
sometimes we do not realize it. In such case, not only the disease of single individual, but lineage of individuals
of the same ancestry should be considered. Most of them were originally exogenous ailment that has become internal through
generations of sufferings. As for example, the sickle cell anemia trait in human being, which is a genetic disease, was laid down
in human genome as a defense mechanism to prevent the
infection of malarial parasite in Africa and associate places. Thus external disease became internal. It is more or less
true for almost all familial diseases.
According to Hering, Cure takes place from above downwards; from within outwards, from more important
organs to less important organs and the symptoms disappear in reverse order of their appearance.
After the curation of new symptoms, as a result, old and suppressed symptoms reappear. 'Disease force'
recedes from above downwards, from more important organ to less important organs and ultimately gentle
cure of the disease occurs. As for example, when the correct remedy is administered pain of shoulder may
travel down to the arms or from hip to foot. Curation occurs always from inward ('interior') to outward
('exterior') of a patient, i.e. after the curation of asthma skin disease may recur. Skin is here the most
'exterior organ', while brain is the most 'interior organ'.
The Brain, as the center of nerves, is considered as innermost part of human body
like that of nucleus of a cell. . In the nervous system nerves radiate from a central portion, the brain,
and spinal cord to different organs
and control their activity. The nerve fibers participate in propagation of nerve impulse and transmit
neurosecretory materials, including the neuropeptides there. When we consider a generalized model of
endocrinological control over metabolism, the branching water pipe pattern could easily be visualized.
Some hormones of pituitary can directly act on visceral organ, muscle and bones without the mediation of
other endocrine and exocrine glands; secretion of some exocrine glands are controlled by more than one
hormone; some visceral organ incorporate their own exocrine and endocrine components and secretion of some
endocrine and exocrine glands are not directly controlled by pituitary itself. However, the brain has a
supreme controlling power over all the metabolic reactions through neural and endocrinological connections.
Hypothalamus of brain secrete some hormone releasing factors, which increase the activity of pituitary
glands to release trophic hormones that flows through blood stream and increase the secretion of metabolic
hormones of other endocrine glands like adrenal, thyroid, testis and ovary. Endocrine secretion through
blood flow can compel the secretion of several exocrine glands by activating their enzymes. As for example,
adrenaline can initiate the rapid breakdown of glycogen of liver into glucose in a cascade flow model. Other
exocrine organs are connected to different hollow visceral organs through ducts or become incorporated
with them. Liver, likewise, being a visceral organ and exocrine gland sends digestive enzyme to the
intestine, but several metabolic reaction occur within it. Exocrine glands release enzymes that participate
in different metabolic reactions that occur in the body.
(Figure:8B, click here to enlarge)
When curation occurs the 'disease force' moves
from more important organs to less important organs. Hence some less severe disease may appear. In real life we observe that
after the curation
of tuberculosis diarrhea may appear. Measles can be taken as an example, where cough comes first and rashes
afterwards during inward progression of 'disease force'. If the correct remedy is applied rash disappear first,
and cough afterwards. The disease, in some cases, may be cured after skin eruptions, indicating a sign of immunization.
Affection of a 'disease force' into biochemical level does not occur haphazardly, but always
through a definite channel; curation of the disease follows just the opposite path: the newer symptoms
becomes cure first, the oldest symptom is recovered at the end of treatment. It appears that the
'disease force' moves from exterior to interior, but 'vital force' triggered by 'medicinal force' compels the same to follow
the opposite direction. This is because 'medicinal force' moves interior much faster than the 'disease force' and stimulates the
innermost organ earlier before the transgression of disease force. Thus it arouse 'vital force', which is expresses in terms
of immunological reactions that sets the patient free from disease.
The term 'miasm'
means defilement, stain, polluted material,
infective material, and contagious effluvia from human body. Few centuries
ago, it was believed that miasm was some form of obnoxious toxic form that
arose from bad soil. It was the result of some hideous toxicity. This concept
also got into the philosophy of homeopathic medicine. Miasm in homeopathy
underwent tremendous changes since then. The concept of internal disability
to respond well-selected remedies came forth as the concept of three 'miasms'.
The theory of miasm is a matured wisdom of 'similia principle'. It is the
sum or total effect of every type of 'disease forces' on human body.
It concentrates on the overall symptoms, not only the recent ones,
but those were manifested all over the lifetime of the patient, even
laid down early in his
ancestry. Naturally, they cannot be artificially induced upon the 'Provers'
by applying higher dose of any single medicine within a limited span of time.
Herein lies the importance of Miasm. The first miasm was 'psora', disease related to itches and irruptions. When
it occurs over the outer surface of the body it is small pox or leprosy.
Likewise, when it occurs in the inner surface of the intestine,
irrespective to pathogen responsible for the disease, it is dysentery.
Similarly, when it occurs at the inner surface of lung it is tuberculosis (Many call them as Pseudopsora or Tubercular miasm).
The remaining two were 'syphilis', (which indicates the symptoms related
to the highly invasive and destructive disease of the same name or any
other similar natural diseases having much aggressive power leading to
degeneration of an organ, ultimately the nervous system) and 'sycosis'
(the symptoms related to Gonorrhea, the fig-wart disease, which can
cause small lumps and tumors to any organ due to disproportionate supply
of metabolites). The followers of Hahnemann included another miasm
'tubercular' much later than his death, as according to them the disease
represent some unique symptoms, not acquainted in other miasms. According
to most of the modern homeopaths 'deficiency of useful metabolites due to
long term suppression' is the key word of psora, while, 'excess storage
of the same due to loss of coordination' is the basic feature of sycosis.
Similarly, 'overflow of harmful metabolites to initiate destruction'
is the main theme of syphilis, while Tubercular is a mixed miasm,
where all the menaces culminate into a gross 'deficiency of both
useful and destructive metabolites', in long run causing loss of
'vital energy'. It should be mentioned here that even the destructive
metabolites has got some positive role in maintaining life. These are
responsible for routine or programmed cell death or
, which is essential to restrict the number of cells
in our body. It also causes death of weak and malefic cells; otherwise,
they might cause tumor or tubercular lesions, even cancer. In case of cancer, the
natural death of malefic cells is absent, hence it is so devastating.
According to some modern practitioners it is a form of tubercular miasm,
as there is a profound debility and weakness, but according to others
it should be ranked as separate miasm, as it represents some fundamental
or basic combination of symptoms, unavailable in other natural chronic
diseases. The theory of miasm, therefore, has a close relation with the basic
concepts of human genetics, we shall discuss here.
Scientifically, miasm means 'like disease'. As for example 'syphilitic
miasm' indicates any disease that has devastating effect on human tissue
like that of syphilis proper, including deformity, pus formation,
necrosis, and degeneration. Miasm is the exclusive heritage of the
humankind. Wild animals in the forest do not suffer from miasm, because
they never try to remove the stress, as we do. We always strive to
change natural environment in favor of us, endeavor to suppress chronic
diseases, so that affected individuals can live long, and reproduce
without proper counseling, consequently the afflicted genes become incorporated into the
pool and later became expressed
as different chronic diseases. As psoric, sycotic, syphilitic, tubercular,
and cancerous miasm so far have been considered as the five dominant causes
of all the natural chronic diseases (except artificial diseases, i.e., caused
by injury, surgery, sedative drugs etc.), we can represent them as blockage of five branching
imaginary pipelines that arise from a common stem. If there is no blockage each carries
the disease preventing metabolites and the person remains healthy,
both physically and mentally. However, deeper and deeper dynamic progression of metabolic
blockage causes scanty flow of some metabolites and overflow
of others. It indicates susceptibility to different diseases. Miasm, for the said reason causes
low synthesis of antibody and immunity cells and makes human body a suitable habitat
for different parasites.
Even in absence of the causative bacteria, virus, protozoa or any other parasite the
affected person manifests several pathological complaints, often seen in the
said infections. How could the symptoms appear in absence of the causative
organisms? The answer is, due to long lasting suppressive treatment of itches,
gonorrhea, syphilis, tubercular, and several other related diseases, generation
after generations, the human genome has become modified to such an extent that
there is disturbance in the flow of metabolites and the symptoms appear spontaneously.
Hence, there is no specific defense mechanism against the pathogens as they do
not bring any new symptoms. They live peacefully in the human body causing no
deadly illness. It serves the interest of both parasite and host, but some chronic
ailments due to specific pathogen associated molecular pattern becomes inheritable.
In the next generation it may become modified to some extent to create more serious trouble.
Psoric, sycotic, syphilitic, tubercular, and cancerous miasm, as mentioned above are not static cause of diseases but dynamic. Psora is the most external cause of disease and cancerous is the most internal one. We have so many examples, how a suppressive allopathic treatment can make the 'external' disease 'internal'. In other words, causes inward progression of 'disease force'. We know that if a parasite that causes skin eruption is suppressed by an allopathic drug may permeate inside and can affect internal organs. In another example, suppose a patient showed a tendency of suffering from indigestion for few days (acute-miasm, preliminary stage of psora). Due to anomalies related to lifestyle and food habit, it became a perennial problem causing deficiency of secreting digestive enzymes. As the deficiency is the cause of disease, we may call him a patient of psora. An allopathic doctor would prescribe pepsin to him in the form of tablets, so that the disease was suppressed, he could digest well, but as the transcription factors responsible for regulating the enzyme-synthesizing gene would have no more work, and the gene would fall lazy. Thus, the disease would move downstream to upstream, or 'outward to inward'. Ingestion of excessive food containing high calorie even after consuming ample of digestive tablet and aversion to physical exercise has become the habit of common people nowadays. Eventually, the most patients of the present day may gain obesity. Simultaneously, due to absence of proper mechanism to combat the excess glucose load, its level in blood would be increasing, and the existing secretion of insulin would not be able to manage the situation because of lacking coordination between transcription factor and hormone. The patient would become diabetic. Here, excess of useful material due to loss of coordination is the cause of the pathological condition. Hence, we would describe him as a sycotic patient. He would be receiving insulin injection every day; In course of time, the entire coordination mechanism between ingestion of food, digestion, storage, and utilization of the same would break down violently. There might be a gross metabolic disorder with excess deposition of fat inside the lumen of arteries of heart tissue, which would be suffering from malnutrition, degeneration, necrosis, destruction, and cell death. Ultimately, there would be severe chest pain due to atrophy of the same. As destruction is the cause of all the trouble, we may term the patient syphilitic as per Hahnemann's notion. It may be secondarily caused due to rupture of lysosome , a cellular organelle, the ultimate cause of destruction. Besides, any type of non-individualistic method of treatment, even including vaccination, does the same kind of harm. So long the metabolites flow normally through the psoric pipelines, we remain protected not only from external diseases like itches and eruptions, but also from internal diseases. In Hahnemann's time, many people were subjected to unnecessary vaccination against smallpox in overdose, the flow rate through the anti-psoric pipelines increased enormously. Eventually, they earned more immunity against smallpox, but became susceptible to the diseases related to sycotic miasm, because of consequent deficiency of flow in the neighboring anti-sycotic pipelines. He explained it as the 'bad effect of vaccination'; and he has mentioned some cases where 'psora is converted into sycosis.' Probably for that reason, gonorrhea broke out so violently after the French war, (1809-1814). Now it has been proved that overdose of vaccination against so many germs are harmful to human health. However, in some provinces where a specific disease is prevalent, large-scale vaccination cannot be avoided. In 1929, long after the death of Hahnemann, the anti-bacterial property of penicillin, extracted from a mould, was discovered. Later, after the invention of several other antibiotics, like bacitracin, chloramphenicol, chlorotetracycline, streptomycin, tetracycline etc., loss of lives by parasitic attack including cholera, syphilis, gonorrhea, and tuberculosis were minimized. These were much effective in killing internal germs than sulphur, mercurials, and other similar drugs, but their malicious effect was revealed later. Most of the germs including tuberculosis became resistant to the antibiotics. The side effects of antibiotics were ever increasing, including emaciation, poor growth of bones and teeth, frequent diarrhea, susceptibility to cold, loss of internal immunity, chronic hemorrhage, and loss of vitality. Ability of sulphur and mercurial were limited in killing the germs of the skin (external membrane); but the antibiotics were capable to eradicate bacteria responsible for eruptions and nodules even inside the body, e.g., mucous membrane of intestine or lung (internal membrane), consequently, the 'external' psora, i.e., adverse effect of suppressive treatment, became 'internal'. According to several practitioners, tubercular miasm should therefore be called 'pseudopsora'- the false psora, as mentioned earlier, which grows internally. Discovery of antibiotics are also responsible for budding of cancer miasm. By the use of antibiotics the boils inside human body do not suppurate spontaneously and remain unchanged year after years. In some cases, it undergoes some malignant changes within that period and converted into tumor. Tumor cells, if they grow in human body are generally digested by natural killer cells (WBCs), but due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics generation after generations, these killer cells have rendered inefficient. Hence caner miasm became widespread in human beings than other animals. It can also be stated for AIDS miasm. These predispositions are so widespread among human beings that they can no more simply be called diseases, but elevated into the rank of miasms, as they represent a gross deficiency of the immune system to fight against these diseases.
(as concluded from the discussion in text)
|Miasm||Biochemical Sphere||Mental Sphere||Physical Sphere||Remedies|
Acute Miasm (Mild Psora)
Temporary deficiency of useful products
Mental anxiety, Delirium etc.
Fever, Diarrhea, Acidity, Vomiting, Headache, Cough, Common itches, Hemorrhage etc.
Aconite, Arnica, China, Nux Vom, Hyoscyamus, Belladonna, Bryonia, Rhus Tox, etc.
Permanent deficiency of useful products
Irritability, Restlessness, Fear, Selfishness, Moodiness, Depression of spirit etc.
Itches and Eruptions, Small pox, Erysipelas, Leprosy, Epilepsy etc.
Sulphur, Hepar Sulphur, Psorinum, Lachesis, Pulsatilla, Lycopodium, Alumina etc.
Permanent overflow of useful products due to imbalance
Fixed ideas, Absent mindedness, Narrow mindedness etc.
Gonorrhea, Condylomata, Warts, Nodules, Diabetes, Gout, Hypo or Hyperthyroidism, etc.
Thuja, Medorrhinum, Argentum Nitricum, Natrum Sulph, Staphysagria, Sepia etc.
Permanent overflow of deleterious products
Forgetfulness, Idiocy, Suicidal tendency, Melancholy etc.
Syphilis, Suppuration, Putrefaction, ulceration, Chancre, Bone erosion Gangrene, Malignant Tumor etc.
Mercury, Syphilinum, Aurum Metallicum, Plumbum Metallicum etc.
Tubercular (Pseudopsora: Psora+Syphilis)
Permanent deficiency of useful products and Permanent overflow of deleterious products
Changeability, Depression, Dissatisfaction etc.
Tuberculosis, Chronic Hemorrhage, Asthma, Meningitis, Malignant Tumor etc.
Phosphorus, Calcarea Carb, Baryta Carb, Kali Carb, Tuberculinum, Bacilinum, etc.
Now we shall come to the scientific method of anti-miasmatic treatment of the chronic patients.
They can be treated well by the respective anti-miasmatic Remrdies (Table 2)
). Suppose, a patient came to a doctor, who was suffering from
fever of slow and insidious nature, with aggravation of coughing by motion and he had thirst
for sufficient cold water. The physician would realize that 'Bryonia' was the remedy.
The patient went away and ameliorated very soon, but returned after few weeks, suffering from the
same complaints, which recurred. He could not stand erect and sat upon a chair. The doctor came to
know from the diseased person that he has a history of suppressing skin rashes by allopathic drug,
derived from sulphur. There was a burning sensation prevailing all over his body for last few days.
This time the doctor would administer one dose of 'Sulphur' to the
patient as a second prescription. Hahnemann himself has faced similar troubles during his life time. Efficacy of 'Sulphur'
in treating such patients was discovered by him after long twelve years of meticulous research. Efficacy of
some other drugs for similar constitutive or anti-miasmatic treatment was discovered later. The doctor has to treat
a patient following his acute symptoms. Then the chronic symptoms reflecting his diathesis or miasm would be expressed
automatically within few days. Then the doctor has to prescribe anti-miasmatic drug after a minute study of symptoms as a
second prescription. Here the metabolic blockage lies in two portions of the branching pipeline: the superficial blockage
was removed by 'Bryonia' while the deeper one was removed by 'Sulphur'. For a complicated disease more than one anti-miasmatic
drug needs to be applied according to emergence of symptoms.
Anti-miasmatic treatment can be explained in the form of molecular mechanistic pathway. According to the proposed theory, deficiency of more than one minute enzyme is responsible for such ailments unlike 'similia principle', so that long drawn constitutive treatment became essential. Now we can explain the healing art according to 'branching water pipe model' (unpublished work) as follows (Figure:9, click here to enlarge).
Observing the affinity of symptoms of medicines upon the
'Provers', as mentioned in homeopathic literature,
a hypothetical metabolic pathway of healthy individual can be constructed. In addition to relationship
between the drugs (kindred remedies), their overlapping symptoms, duration of their activity, and anti-miasmatic
properties are important in drawing 'branching water pipe' diagram for homeopathic medicines, where the locations
of hypothetical unknown enzymes, sensitive to particular drugs were placed accordingly. Among more than
two thousand existing homeopathic remedies, very few were incorporated. Closer location of medicines in
the linear array represents close affinities, indicated by overlapping of symptoms between the drugs.
Towards the origin of the pipelines each nearest neighbors like (from below to above) 'Sepia', -'Nitric acid',
-'Hepar' -'Mercury', -'Carbo veg', - 'Causticum', - 'Lachesis', - 'Lycopodium', - 'Phosphorus',- 'Calcarea Phos',
- 'Graphites', and - 'Arsenic' locations share some common or overlapping features, and they can be administered
one after another, if the metabolic blockage is shifted to the next location, indicated by alteration of symptoms.
There are seven imaginary terminals of the pipelines in the diagram. The first three terminals represent acute
miasmatic disorders. Thousands of metabolites bearing anti-inflammatory, anti- external hemorrhagic, anti-bacterial,
anti-febrile, anti-indigestive, and anti-depressant properties that are always synthesized in our body, flow through
acute miasmatic pipelines. Secretion of useful metabolites including
digestive juices and other exocrine
glands, anti-itch and eruptive
materials, which are responsible for external (surface) immunity, even secretion of sweat and
sebaceous glands flow through psoric pipeline. When there is a blockage just below the origin of
psoric pipeline itches and eruptions would appear as a consequence of overflowing, but the secretion
of anti-inflammatory, anti- external hemorrhagic, anti-bacterial, anti-febrile materials would decrease.
The patient would often suffer from fever, allergy, headache, loss of appetite etc. Secretion of storable
useful materials, influenced by
glands, especially, the hormones responsible for specific coordination within the body system, like
testis, ovary and pancreas and some immunological materials responsible for immunity against venereal
diseases flow through sycotic pipelines. When there is a blockage just below the origin of sycotic
pipeline, an overflow of useful materials may occur. As a result, diabetes and other metabolic
disorders may emerge. Moreover, warts, nodules and gonorheal lesions may emerge over skin due to
greater synthesis and overflow of related antibodies. Endogenous destructive materials that are
responsible for killing foreign bodies, also self, detoxifying metabolites, anti-necrotic substances
and those are responsible for pus formation and wound healing, substances for proper growth of teeth
and bones, anti- internal hemorrhagic substances that prevent internal hemorrhage, materials responsible
for internal immunity, secretion of thyroid, thymus, and adrenal glands, having generalized metabolic
coordinating function, can flow through syphilitic pipelines. When there is a blockage just below the
origin of syphilitic pipeline, an overflow of destructive materials may occur as a result, causing
necrosis. Moreover, deadly dryness, chancre and syphilitic lesions may emerge over the skin. Due to
deficiency of useful materials that flow through sycotic pipeline, gum, teeth and bone decay quickly.
It should be mentioned here that thyroid has got some degenerating capacity. Injection of thyroxin in
tadpoles causes degeneration of tail. Adrenal is responsible for 'fight and flight' mechanism. However,
its increase causes suicidal tendency in some mammals. Hence, it appears that both the glands may become
affected by syphilitic miasm, indicated by excess secretion of both. At cellular level, the miasm may
cause overflow of some metabolites that trigger bursting of lysosomes- the 'suicidal bag'. Anti-tubercular
products are responsible for gross deficiency of both useful and destructive materials. Secretion of
pituitary, conferring supreme generalized type of coordination, and the growth materials like calcium,
responsible for enlargement of bones, flow and the materials responsible for apoptosis run through
tubercular pipeline. If there is a blockage below the origin of tubercular pipeline the patient becomes
tall, lean and thin in appearance, bearing delicate health, easily affected by cold, showing deformity
and decay of muscle and bones, suffering from osteoporosis due to outflow of calcium from the body and
look like 'pigeon chested'. They became over-sensitive, gloomy, and sluggish in nature. As the miasm can
bring more generalized symptoms including growth of muscle and bones, it appears that it has got the
capacity of afflicting pituitary gland. It is seen that in human body, the glands that located upper
have an influence over their subordinates. As for example, thyroid has influence over gonad as it is
located at the upper position. Likewise, Pituitary has a control over both of them. Therefore, affliction
of the upper one can bring more generalized symptoms, indicating deeper progression of 'disease force'.
Cancer miasm indicates the deepest advancement of 'disease force' and the worst deterioration of
'vital force'. It has an adverse influence over every type of metabolic functions of the body.
Even programmed cell death or apoptosis cannot occur in cancer affected individuals due to blockage above
the origin of tubercular pipeline. Due to highest grade of debility, cancerous miasm is comparable to
affliction of the brain, hypothalamus, or nerve tissue that can secrete neuropeptides. We may imagine
that the secretion of the materials responsible for controlling cell cycle, cell growth, proofreading
enzymes, along with cancer suppressing metabolites, which are detectable by clinical tests, flow away
through cancerous pipelines.
Scanty flow of metabolites through acute-miasmatic pipes due to
blockage at any place symbolizes acute ailments, including loss of appetite, indigestion,
weakness, debility, anxiety, malaise, sudden external hemorrhage, inflammation, and acute
febrile condition. These blockages are very shallow in nature, so that sometimes they may
be eliminated spontaneously without applying any medicine. Progress of blockage (due to
suppressive allopathic treatment) towards the deeper position, near 'Sulphur' point, indicates
psora, where in addition to the above symptoms, there is a tendency of itches and eruptions
appearing all over the skin, like smallpox, scabies, and leprosy. During the time of Hahnemann
and even earlier, sulphur was widely used as a crude drug to suppress itches and eruptions by
allopathic doctors; as a result, the effect of sulphur pollution upon human health became
deep-rooted. Treatment of homeopathic 'Sulphur' cures such type of chronic ailments. This
was similar to the idea of isopathy, closely related to hormesis.
Homeopathic medicines like 'Aconite', 'Ferrum', 'Arnica',
'Belladonna', 'Bryonia' etc. being short active remedies with comparatively smaller
number of chronic symptoms involving the whole body and mind, but mainly acute ones,
were placed towards the terminals. 'Sulphur' being the 'king of anti-psoric remedies'
was placed just above the origin of anti-psoric pipeline. If there is a blockage at
'Sulphur point', less eruptio- preventive materials would flow through psoric pipelines,
consequently itches and eruptions would not appear over the skin, as if to protect the
body system from external enemies. If the blockage is below the 'Sulphur point', there will be excess flow of anti-psoric product, so itches and eruption would appear. Likewise, 'Thuja' could show salutary effect over sycosis,
so that it is called the 'king of anti-sycotic remedies'. 'Thuja' was placed just
below the origin of anti-sycotic pipelines. Hence, if there is a blockage at 'Thuja'
point, excess of useful materials, e.g., glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol etc.
would flow through the sycotic pipeline. They would be accumulated within the body.
Side by side anti-psoric materials would not flow properly, so that natural immunity
against the acute diseases decreases, they would suffer from affection of external
parasites, well represented in diabetic patients. During the life span of Hahnemann
and even earlier the allopaths used crude mercury to treat venereal diseases.
While practicing as an allopathic doctor, Hahnemann was unable to cure frequent cases
of venereal chancres, especially, complicated with itches, or with the dyscrasia of
condylomatous gonorrhea by long continued or frequently repeated erroneous treatment
with large doses of mercurial preparations. Yet, he claimed to have noticed gradual
development of 'masked venereal diseases' by the use of the said drug
and many concomitant symptoms, including pus formation, bubo, chancre etc. like those
of syphilis. Chronic mercury poisoning is characterized by neurological and psychological
symptoms, such as tremor, changes in personality, restlessness, anxiety, sleep disturbance
and depression, which are the characteristic features of syphilis miasm. Occurrence of
coronary heart disease by mercury exposure with no previous history of cardiovascular
disease also indicates syphilis miasm. Metallic mercury may cause kidney damage and
proteinuria. It is an allergen, which may cause contact eczema. In the mercury-polluted
areas of the earth, it was reported that people become weak and susceptible to several
diseases; they suffer from abdominal pain, headache, diarrhea, hemolysis, and chest
pain. Decay of teeth and bones in mercury exposed individuals also indicates syphilis
miasm. Some of the said symptoms might have similarity with syphilitic symptoms proper
in terms of devastating effect. Potentized mercury salt cannot bring the all the
excrescences upon a 'Prover' after short-term exposure in tolerable concentration,
but for long-term exposure many symptoms related to the said miasm may be expressed.
For that reason, 'Mercury' is called the 'king of anti-syphilitic remedies', which is
placed below the origin of syphilitic pipeline. If there is a blockage at 'Mercury'
point, excess of destructive materials that can cause necrosis and pus formation in
tissues would flow through the pipeline. Simultaneously, deficiency of anti-psoric
and anti-sycotic materials would occur. There is practically no single or ideal remedy,
which can cover all the symptoms associated to tubercular miasm. However, 'Phosphorus'
and 'Calcarea Phos' were found very effective in solving most of the problems of these
patients. So they were placed below the origin of anti-tubercular pipeline. In the
diagram, 'Arsenic', a cancer causing element, being deepest among the remedies, indicates
longest duration of action, therefore having larger number of deep-seated chronic symptoms,
indicates the ideal remedy of cancer miasm. A recent WHO evaluation (Geneva: World Health
Organization, 2001) concludes that arsenic exposure via drinking water is causally related
to cancer in the lungs, kidney, bladder and skin, the risk increases with increasing exposure.
Moreover, during Hahnemann's time sulphur, mercury, lead etc. were widely used as allopathic
medicines of inorganic origin. Nowadays almost all allopathic medicines are carbon compound.
Hence, homeopathic medicine 'Graphites' has a special significance. Therefore, 'Arsenic' and
'Graphites' were placed much upstream than the other drugs, very near to the origin of all the
flows. Any blockage at the place causes alteration of almost the entire flow, as a consequence
in addition to cancer miasm the four others - tubercular, syphilitic, sycotic, and psora would
appear together, which would prevail all over the body. It does not mean that symptoms related
to all the medicines would appear simultaneously. This is because medicinal symptoms appear
together due to both deficiency of some and overflow of other metabolites, indicated by particular
medicine. For 'Arsenic' deficiency is mostly the causative agent, overflow is negligible.
Deficiency of nutrients, vitamins and minerals, deficiency of natural reactions, deficiency
of immunity, vital heat, and deficiency of destructive materials even apoptosis causing factors
would become the salient feature of such patients, resulting a gross deficiency of 'vital energy'.
There would be scanty flow in 1st-7th pipelines, but overflow in the 8th pipeline that carries
cancer related metabolites. The said remedy is applicable to patients having familial history of
suffering from all the five miasms. The same is true for deep acting 'Graphites' also. Besides,
other deep-rooted medicines like 'Calcarea Phos', 'Phosphorus' 'Lycopodium', 'Lachesis', 'Causticum',
and 'Carbo veg' cover four miasms: tubercular, syphilitic, sycotic, and psora, so they were placed
below the origin of tubercular pipeline. 'Mercury', 'Hepar', 'Nitric acid', 'Sepia', and 'Lilium
tigrinum', have influence over three miasms:
syphilitic, sycotic, and psora, so they were placed below the origin of syphilitic pipeline. Likewise,
'Thuja' and 'Antim crud' can cover two miasms: sycotic, and psora, so they were placed below the origin
of sycotic pipeline. 'Sulphur' can cover only one miasm: psora, so it was placed above the origin of
psoric pipeline. 'Pulsatilla', 'Alumina' etc. show several features of anti-psoric remedies, so they
were placed just below 'Sulphur' location. The Acute miasmatic remedies that we frequently use, like
'Bryonia', 'Belladonna', 'Nux vomica', 'Rhus tox', 'Arnica', 'Aconite' etc. have few anti-psoric
features, so they were placed near the terminals of the psoric pipelines. Still, some medicines
are there, like nosodes, which are very specialized and can cover single miasm, because they are
prepared from disease exudates, which can bring most of the pathological complaints of the representing
disease only, when applied upon healthy individuals. For that reason, 'Carcinocin' covers only cancer
miasm, so that they were placed towards the terminal of anti-cancerous pipeline. 'Tuberculinum' exclusively
indicates tubercular miasm. 'Syphilinum', mostly covers syphilitic miasm; 'Medorrhinum', for sycotic
and 'Psorinum' mostly represents psora (Hence, several symptoms of 'Psorinum' are similar to 'Sulphur',
others are dissimilar). All of them possibly can stimulate killer T-lymphocyte that can digest away
tumors of psoric, sycotic, syphilitic, tubercular or cancerous origin and/or can stimulate respective
B-lymphocytes that can secrete specific antibodies (immunoglobulins) antagonistic to those diseases.
Apart from miasm, in homeopathic literature predisposition
of a disease is
diathesis , which came from ancient medical literature,
much earlier to Hahnemann. Miasms were actually broader aspects of diatheses.
Each miasm has been subdivided into several diatheses to explain the root cause
of hundreds of existing diseases. Like that of miasm the tendency of overflowing
of some metabolite and deficiency of others is the actual cause of diatheses.
The difference is that in case of the latter the number of metabolites becomes
less due to further channeling of the same (not shown in the figure for simplification).
All the diatheses have a definite linkage with the known metabolic pathways.
Blockage of one or more minute metabolic pathways produces lactic acid, oxalic acid,
lithic acid, and uric acid diatheses. The deficiency of any minute sub-cellular enzyme,
which is somehow linked with urea
cycle in liver, may cause the tendency of excess
deposition of urea or uric acid in the body resulting uric acid diathesis. The
patients become susceptible to gout, rheumatism, kidney
stone, nephritis, and gallstones. Such stones can also be formed by oxalic acid
diathesis. The diatheses, as mentioned above, can be detected from blood sample
or urine by single test and effectively treated with 'Lycopodium', 'Urea',
'Nitric acid', 'Senna', 'Natrum sulph' etc., if other concomitant symptoms
match. Scrofulous, tubercular, hemorrhagic, rachitic, rheumatic, and neurosycotic
are the other examples of diatheses, which can easily be detected by clinical
test, but as the alteration of metabolites are numerous, and might be
endocrinological, hematological, immunological or neurological in origin,
therefore, cannot be identified by single trial. The same is true for miasm
also. Therefore, more meticulous attempts of chronological recording specific
combination of symptoms, even of
previous generations are required. According to many the psoric miasm has
eruptive-scrofulous (example of remedy: 'Psorinum', 'Alumina' etc.), hemorrhagic
(e.g., 'Arnica', 'China' etc.), nervous (e.g., 'Hyoscymus'), and gouty type
(e.g., 'Rhus tox', 'Bryonia' etc.) diatheses; sycotic miasm has lithic-uric acid (e.g.,
'Natrum sulph'), rheumatic-gouty (e.g., 'Sabina', 'Medorrhinum' etc.) and neurosycotic
(e.g., 'Argentum nitricum') type diatheses; syphilitic miasm shows
suppurative-ulcerative (e.g., 'Syphilinum'), neurosyphilitic (e.g., 'Aurum met'),
and strumous or scrofulous
goiter (e.g., 'Plumbum') diatheses. According to Hahnemann's literature
tubercular was initially a diathesis. Later it was elevated into the rank
of miasm. It can be subdivided into three diatheses: tubercular-scrofulous
(e.g., 'Baryta carb'), tubercular-hemorrhagic (e.g., 'tuberculinum'),
and rachitic (e.g., 'Calcarea carb').
Therefore, a blockage at 'Sulphur' point would have an impact over all
the diatheses, as mentioned above, included under psora miasm, though
predominantly it represents irruptive-scrofulous diathesis. Similarly,
a blockage at 'Thuja' point would have an effect over all the diatheses,
not only belongs to sycosis miasm, but also under psora. Likewise, a
blockage at 'Mercury' point would have an impression over all the
diatheses under syphilis, sycosis, and psora miasm. A blockage at
'Calcarea Phos' or 'Phosphorus' point can bring affection not only
on tubercular diathesis, but also a faint impression will remain over
all the diatheses under syphilis, sycosis, and psora miasm as well.
Consequently, the patient affected by the said miasm will have a very
low vital activity.
The method of anti-miasmatic treatment, as we have
exemplified earlier, the application of 'Sulphur' to the patient
caused elimination of 'psora', and the patient got
permanent relief by applying 'Bryonia'. After few days, the previously
suppressed rashes reappeared over his skin, but disappeared very soon,
and gradually he became completely cure. When initially the patient came
there were two metabolic blockages, one at 'Bryonia' and
another at 'Sulphur' point, causing scanty flow of 1st-4th terminals and
and very scanty flow at 1-3 terminals. The symptoms of 'Sulphur' became expressed
in a complete form after removing 'Bryonia' blockage (return
of the older symptom). The patient could not get permanently well due to
constitutional insufficiency of metabolites that flow through the 1st-3rd
terminals, therefore the blockage at 'Bryonia' point may reappear like
silting of a drying up river. The deficiency symptoms continued to recur
so long the 'Sulphur' blockage was not eliminated by the gentle 'hammering'
with the said remedy. Nowadays, permanent cure of a patient
applying single constitutional remedy is very rare due to the following
reasons: (i) Greater number of metabolic blockages so that symptoms do
not match with single remedy; (ii) Blockage at the deeper portions of the
branching pipelines causing complete drying up of the 'rivers' of essential
metabolites, so that symptoms cannot express properly making the selection
of the remedy difficult. During Hahnemann's time, it was possible, because
the environment was not so much polluted, people were not so much dependent
upon allopathic drugs, and their lifestyle including food habits were
comparatively simple. Marriage between two patients suffering from different
miasm or diatheses generation after generations caused blockage at multiple
places of branching water pipe. Whenever more than one diathesis is inherited
from paternal and maternal sides, it can produce more complicated disease
including cancer. Availability of a patient based on complete symptoms of
a particular medicine is very rare nowadays (It was possible in Hahnemann's
time). Moreover, the symptoms would not appear in a complete form, like
'Sulphur patient', 'Thuja patient' etc. unless we remove the blockages
from the terminals of the pipelines by applying acute or short-active
remedies like 'Bryonia', 'Belladonna' etc., generally in lower potencies.
Removal of all the blockages would require much intuition and take longer
time span. Therefore, they should be treated in a systematic manner. The
basic protocol for treatment for all the patients should be the same
irrespective of nature of the disease. The healing art should always
start from outward to inward, i.e., from the terminals, as far as
possible, to the origin of the pipelines. Thereafter, if almost all
physical and mental symptoms match, the most suitable medicine should
be applied in higher potency. The blockage, in the form of suppressed
metabolite ('disease force') would flow towards the terminals and hence
the old original symptoms would return. This is because, the blockage
picture of the pipelines would indicate all the features of initial
affection represented by symptoms. After removal of all the blockages
the water would begin to flow again through all the pipelines equally.
Therefore, the direction of cure is always inward to outward, opposite
to the direction of affection. The patient would be certainly cured
after few days. Let us take the case of a patient, who is suffering
from a small tumor, located at the upper lobe of the left lung. He
is chilly, but has a burning sensation prevailing all over his body.
The patient is quite intelligent, oversensitive, apathetic or indifferent
to his friends. He is quite apprehensive. He has some religious insanity.
He is sad and avoids conversation. Music makes him sad. There is no history
of cancer in his family. However, his grandfather died in whooping cough and
asthma, indicating presence of tubercular miasm in his family history. He himself
is a patient of high blood pressure (syphilitic miasm). The patient has warts and
nodules in his body, also he has some fixed ideas (sycotic miasm). He has once
suffered from measles in his childhood (psora miasm). As all the four miasms are present, the physician should choice the constitutional remedy from the deep
anti-miasmatic stem comprised of 'Carbo veg', 'Causticum', 'Lachesis',
'Lycopodium', 'Phosphorus', and 'Calcarea Phos', as shown in the diagram.
Presently, he is suffering from fever with heat and redness of head, with
coolness of rest of the body.
Initially, he should be treated with 'Arnica'. (Several other remedies would be
required, if there are other symptoms due to multiple blockages). After the
removal of the blockage he expressed the symptoms of pneumonia with rusty,
blood colored sputa. Therefore, the final remedy should surely be 'Phosphorus'
in its higher potency, to which most of the physical and mental symptoms would
be recovered. Here the symptoms of 'Phosphorus' could not appear in a discrete
form before the removal of blockages from the terminals of the pipelines.
Besides science, the theory of miasm has its own
philosophy also. The physical ailments related to all the five miasms, as
described above, according to many authors, have been transmitted from the
mental sphere of the patients as well. As we start our life from single cell,
all the successors of the same bear the same 'mind'. As for example, psoric
patients are seen to be highly irritable and oversensitive to natural things.
Therefore, hypersensitivity of skin reactions, over-secretion of allergic
materials is a common feature of their physiology. There is a suppression of
emotion, desire, and anger. Hence, most diseases are caused due to suppression
of skin reaction, general debility and weakness in digestion. Sycotics have a
tendency of concealing facts and excess accumulation of wealth greater than
their need, therefore they have a loss of coordination between other members
of the society. Analogically, the cells of their body consume nutrients higher
than their requirement, do not response to endocrine secretion, and perform poor
metabolic function. Syphilitics have an inborn inclination to destruction of self
and others. The cells produce more destructive and toxic materials than the normal
ones. Their cells have a tendency of secreting hydrolyzing enzymes through lysosome.
Eventually, they die at an early age and may cause necrosis in tissue. In appearance,
tubercular and cancerous patients show a loss of vitality in their body and mind.
Therefore, all the cells of their body suffer from extreme deficiency of vital metabolites,
useful or destructive.
During Hahnemann's era, genetics was not
developed as a subject, so that the science of miasm was the only
alternative of explaining 'familial diseases'. The theory of miasm
was a substitute of genetics at that time. From the idea of mixing
of more than one affliction together to produce a complicated miasm,
it appears that he believed in 'blending mode of inheritance', the
commonest theory at that time. Modern genetics believe in 'particulate
mode of inheritance' by means of genes or DNA fragments, but it cannot
nullify his observation because; most chronic diseases are inherited
with a particular combination of symptoms, attributed to a large number
of linked genes, often called syndromes that can be compared with his
concept of miasm. Secondly, complication of inherited diseases in the
subsequent generations is possible by contamination due to pollutants,
bacteria, virus, or faulty allopathic treatment. Thirdly, it is often
seen that predisposition of disease or diatheses are more or less
heritable. Whenever more than one diathesis, are inherited from paternal
and maternal sides, can produce more complicated disease including cancer.
Hence, the theory of miasm, like that of similia principle, is highly
The difference between 'similia principle' and 'miasm' is out of degree.
The latter is the extended version of the former, where more number of minute
enzymes or transcription factors are affected. Therefore,
it can be rarely treated with single remedy. Hence, the treatment
requires systematic application of anti-miasmatic medicines one after
another and generally needs a longer time for permanent curation.
Amazed by the sixth sense of Hahnemann about
'contagious principle' regarding homeopathic management for contagious
bacterial diseases, some believe that he can justly be called the
'father of Bacteriology', though the role of bacteria on human
disease was not revealed then. From the above discussion, we could
understand that homeopathic remedies, being very minute in amount,
cannot bind, and trigger synthesis of antibody directly, but can
stimulate the minute enzymes or receptors directly or indirectly,
which in the form of cascade reaction can influence the same by
means of transcription factors. Overwhelmed by his modern thought
of medicine we cannot desist ourselves in calling him as the 'real
father of modern Molecular Medicine'. A true homeopathic doctor
like him, though does not necessarily possesses a sound expertise
on the said discipline of modern medicine, becomes motivated by
the same insight. His idea of treatment was much superior to his
contemporary workers; even the entire wisdom of 'Molecular Medicine'
along with all its recent progresses is running far behind homeopathy.
The latest ideal of the modern medicinal science are: (1) to 'ensure
cure by applying least amount of medicine' to avoid side effects, (2)
'drug targeting to the affected tissue' for the safety of unaffected
organs, and (3)'individualization of treatment' due to genetic variability among the
patients. Hence, there is no doubt that homeopathy is the forerunner
of the modern science of medicine, because they are used in minutest
quantity, having highly penetrating ability and homeopathy itself is a
very much individualized method of treatment from the very beginning.
'Bryonia' can cure fever of one patient according to specific
combination of symptoms and 'Rhus tox' of another. Lack of
proper penetration ability of the crude drugs to the diseased
tissue cells and attenuation of detoxification mechanism of the
diseased tissue causes failure of ordinary allopathic drugs,
therefore the use of a 'vehicle' that can form a shield against
detoxifying agents to guarantee drug delivery to the target tissue
was essential. Application of 'vehicle', therefore, became no more
a unique heritage of Hahnemann's method, but has gradually became
corollary to the drug delivery system of mainstream medicine as well.
A number of technological advances have been made in that area leading
to the development of sophisticated systems that allow drug penetration,
targeting, and ensures sustained release of medicines in a controlled way.
These are micelles, liposomes, niosomes, cyclodextrins, prodrugs, vaccine
adjuvants, nanoparticles, emulsions etc. Here drug molecules remain
attached to different kinds of 'vehicles' (e.g., oils, higher alcohols,
phospholipids etc.) that ensure its delivery to the target tissues.
Micelles, as we have mentioned earlier, are small (4-10 nm), stable
spherical droplet like aggregation of about 50-100 amphipathic
molecules of fatty acid or higher alcohol, hydrophobic units of which
are all hidden in its interior, away from surrounding water, while
their hydrophilic polar groups are oriented on the outer surface of
the droplet, closely associated with surrounding water molecules.
For drug delivery purposes, hydrophobic drugs may be solubilized
within the core of the micelle or, alternatively, conjugated to
the micelle-forming polymer. Likewise, liposomes were discovered
in the mid 1960s and have since gained recognition in the field of
drug delivery. The mixture of drug and suspending phospholipid
molecules in an aqueous medium is sonicated by high frequency sound
to give a dispersion of closed vesicles that are quite uniform in size
of about 50 nm in diameter. Antitumor, anticancer and antibacterial
agents can be trapped in the aqueous compartment and by this way
delivery of drugs to target tissue becomes possible
(Figure:10, click here to enlarge). Such liposomes
can be adsorbed onto the cell surface, fused with the cell membrane,
and release their contents into the cell cytoplasm, or the drug can
enter cell via micro-pinocytosis. Yet due to large size, it is not
always effective to penetrate smaller target cells. Most of them are
excreted through liver and kidney. To solve the difficulty, tissue
specific antibody-coated micelles and liposomes have been introduced
to ensure the entry of the minimum quantity poisonous inhibitory
substance to the target tissue. As they carry suppressive drug,
it may induce resistance in the affected tissue, the efficacy of
the same may fall in course. On the other hand, homeopathic
medicines though discovered much earlier, has managed to solve
all the problems quite unexpectedly, or by the intuition of a
genius like Hahnemann in the gentlest way. It uses alcohol as
'vehicle' and due to special orientation of the same, as we
have discussed earlier, can act like 'drug-loaded liposome',
but being much smaller and speedier than liposome, it can get
an easier entry to the target cells, even up to the nucleus. As
it does not carry a suppressive drug, but the stimulatory one,
minutest quantity of medicine is sufficient enough to arouse
vital response. Since the drug itself is the ligand of the
target enzyme, therefore coating of the same with a separate
ligand (antibody) is not essential to reach the target.
The disease symptoms of human being has become so much
diversified and complicated nowadays than Hahnemann's epoch that exactly 'Prover'
like symptoms in patients are acquainted very rare, as a result, desirable
results are not obtained by applying conventional medicines prepared from natural
plant products or other sources. It is possible that introduction of biotechnological
tools in homeopathy would do the same more easily with certainty. It would assure cent
percent similarity of symptoms between 'Prover' and the patient and assure the
treatment of most difficult diseases.
In most of the natural chronic diseases of the modern times, the causative enzyme is minute, unknown and multiple, so that generalized treatment becomes more difficult. Considering the fact that no single enzyme species could be responsible for the disease in all the patients, individualistic method of treatment is gaining importance in modern mainstream medicine. All the chronic patients of a particular disease might not be showing the same kind of deviation in their protein profile and they should be treated individually and not generally. Protein profile test by gel electrophoresis , proteomics , and drug screening are now becoming an indispensable part of modern 'allopathic' treatment for chronic patients. For any kind of chronic disease, as we have mentioned earlier, there is a disproportionate flow of metabolites through different channels: some are excess and overflowing, some are scanty, while the others are normal. Relevant to that the same feature is reflected in their protein profile: some are excess and bears high density (HD), some are scanty and represented by low density (LD) bands (Figure:11, click here to enlarge) , while others are normal. In extreme cases, there is a mutant protein that shows different mobility pattern, and thus alters in band position. Bottom of the slab contains smallest protein factor(s), having highest mobility, either disappears or very scanty. Such a band was marked by arrow. These deficient proteins should be the target of stimulatory method of treatment. However, they are so minute and remain so congested in the gel slab that their identity and density cannot be easily compared with control. The latest biotechnological device, called Molecular Medicine detects the deficiency of beneficial enzyme, as well as over synthesis of deleterious one that is responsible for disease of individual patient by densitometry, after gel electrophoresis, screens out a stimulator (positive modulator) of the former or an inhibitor (negative modulator) of the latter enzyme by autoradiographic method (also called 'photo affinity labeling method') and applies the same compound as a medicine. However, in most cases it suppresses the deleterious enzyme. Being a patient specific approach of treatment like that of homeopathy, it can show salutary effect on several chronic diseases, but at the same time being a suppressive method, it cannot cure a patient permanently. Like any other suppressive technique, the number of drug addicted weak cells gradually increases in tissues, and the patient becomes more and more vulnerable to disease and dependent on medicines.
Stimulatory methods following immunization technique following homeopathic principle are also in use in the field of Molecular Medicine in few cases. Theoretically, if a layman applies homeopathic medicine
one after another to a patient by trial and error method there is a little chance
of recovery, but an experienced doctor can find out the suitable remedy with single
effort by comparing patient's symptoms with medicinal symptoms. Likewise, if we hypothetically use radio-labeled probe one after another for each patient to
ensure its binding with the target enzyme it would be much laborious.
remove such difficulty by applying a specialized method. Most possibly, the minutest
protein factor(s), deficiency of which is responsible for the disease, having
controlling influence over the synthesis of other bulky functional enzymes should
be the target of the drug (actually, ligand-inhibitor of the minute deficient
proteins). Higher dose application of the same could induce patient-like symptoms
in healthy persons ('provers'). If the same is stimulated by slow but minute application
of the inhibitor, there might be chance of cure. Screening out of the ligand of
the minutest deficient protein and stimulating the same is not an easy task as
mentioned above. Firstly, there is a chance of cross-reaction between the minute
drug ingredient and other bulky protein molecules present in
the patient's body. Secondly, such an experiment cannot be supported on ethical
ground, because each patient would require an individual 'Prover'. Fresh trial
with several radioactive probes, which are very costly and should be restricted
in use, would be essential for each patient. Thirdly, to sort out the deficient
enzyme from thousands of minute overlapping bands is next to impossible. Lastly,
those minute protein factors generally remain protected within the innermost
compartment of the cell, covered by selectively permeable endomembrane system;
the crude drug might not be penetrating enough to reach there.
In order to solve the above problems and for large-scale application of treatment for a huge number of patients, suffering from different chronic diseases, a standard experimental protocol similar to Western Blotting has been suggested by Chattopadhyay (Chattopadhyay, 2002) applying two dimensional gel electrophoresis (for the better resolution of protein bands as spots) on the tissues of normal healthy persons and measuring their normal protein content in terms of density. Binding of different drug ingredients to the spots and competitive replacement of one successful probe with a better one would be detected by autoradiographic method (Figure:12, click here to enlarge). Suppose, two spots could glow by the application of radio labeled drug ingredient I-1 (e.g., radio labeled form of Strychnine, the alkaloid of 'Nux vomica') then the same should be eluted away by non-labeled I-1. The plate would appear dark. Suppose, application of I-2 could not resume glowing of the former spots, but the blaze appeared in two new points and again it would be vanished by the application of non-labeled I-2. After the application of labeled I-3, the blush at the initial point would restore (due to replacement of non-labeled I-1 by labeled I-3). The spot would be seen along with two new specks, which would be replaced later by other more efficient ligands. Ultimately, all the spots would be identified based on binding of the best ligands (I-1 to I-8) as an integrated autoradiograph. Hence, there would be no cross reaction possible with other proteins while using the ingredients as medicines. Suppose, a chronic patient came with deficient spots, indicated by low density in I-1 and I-2 locations, as shown in the figure. Proportional mixture of those drugs, in non-labeled form, potentized several times with plentiful ethanol might be applied in minute dose to him as 'individualized medicine' (Chattopadhyay, 2002) . If the same medicine is applied upon healthy individual in sufficiently high dose he will suffer from patient-like combination of symptoms. Here, mixing of drugs to bring patient-like symptoms does not go against homeopathic philosophy, because majority of medicines introduced by Hahnemann himself were mixture of two or more drug ingredients, as for example, 'Nux vomica' contains mainly two alkaloids, strychnine, and brucine. 'Chelidonium' contains five alkaloids sanguinarine, chelidonine, chelerythrine, berberine, and coptisisine as well. Applying the same to healthy individuals, the 'proving symptoms' were recorded by Hahnemann and his followers. However, the induced symptoms of single ingredient were hardly noticed. Hence, the application of single ingredient medicine in homeopathy is very limited. In the proposed method, based on biotechnology, such a condition would never arise because no 'Prover' would be essential. As we have dearth of knowledge regarding the rate of synthesis of minute enzymes or transcription factors depending upon variable environmental factors in healthy individuals, both control and diseased tissues should be cultured for few generations in standard nutrient medium before electrophoresis. In choosing medicine ingredients, emphasis should be given to them that can bind lower molecular weight proteins that are present within the nucleus. This is because they are most possibly the upstream protein factors having influence over few other dependent ones, having higher molecular weight. Excess or less secreting functional proteins thus can be rectified. Ligands of larger molecular weight proteins that are generally present in the periphery of the cells in bulky amount should not be taken into account in selecting medicines. This is because, stimulation of the minute proteins that have controlling influence over those will certainly rectify the dependent ones (Chattopadhyay, 2002) . It would check overflow of some metabolites as well as would compensate the scanty flow of others (Chattopadhyay, 2002) .
There are some indirect evidences both in protein profile and gene expression profile in support of the proposed hypothetical method, especially in the viewpoint of cancer cell treatment by homeopathic drugs. Endless survival and proliferation potential of tumor or cancer cells is actually caused by deficiency or inactivation of its cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin -dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p27 . Consequently, it seems logical that up-regulation of CDK inhibitors would activate the regulation mechanisms and control survival and proliferation in cancer cells (Roy et al, 2009) . Chemo-preventive agents have also been described as having similar effects on the regulation of CDK inhibitors to induce pro-apoptotic response (Singh and Agarwal, 2006) . The ultra-diluted natural homeopathic remedies were found preventive and or therapeutic agents for breast cancer and worthy of further study. Frenkel et al (Frenkel et al, 2010) conducted an in vitro study to determine whether products prescribed by a famous family of homeopathic doctors in Kolkata, India have any effect on breast cancer cell lines. They studied four ultra-diluted remedies ('Carcinosin', 'Phytolacca', 'Conium' and 'Thuja') against two human breast cancer cell lines and a cell line derived from immortalized normal human mammary epithelial cells. The remedies exerted preferential cytotoxic effects against the two breast cancer cell lines (Frenkel et al, 2010) , causing cell cycle delay or arrest and apoptosis of the cancer cells. These effects were accompanied by altered expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, including down-regulation of phosphorylated Retinoblastoma ( Rb ) protein and up-regulation of the CDK inhibitor p27 protein, which were likely responsible for the cell cycle delay (or arrest) as well as induction of the apoptotic cascade. Both were manifested in the activation of caspase 7, an apoptosis-associated protein, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), another apoptosis-associated protein, in the homeopathic medicine-treated cells employing Western Blotting technique (Frenkel et al, 2010) . Methylation-specific epigenetic process and gene expression profiles of HeLa cells treated with ultra-high dilutions of two plant extracts, 'Hydrastis canadensis' 30C and 'Marsdenia condurango' 30C, were analyzed against placebo 30C (Saha et al, 2015) as control for alterations in gene profiles linked to epigenetic modifications. Methylation-specific restriction enzyme assay elucidated differential epigenetic modifications in drug-treated and control cells, as evident by microarray gene expression profiles of many genes associated with carcinogenesis in HeLa cells in vitro. In all cases the probable explanation is the same: minute amount of medicinal molecules enveloped with tightly packed solvent get an easy entry inside cell and modulate the binding of activator or repressor with operator of DNA molecules, so that the synthesis rate of mRNA alters and expression of genes increased for a stipulated period, which brings the symptoms in Provers and when applied in minute dose slightly aggravates and ultimately cures the patients, suffering from similar ailments.
The theory of 'Neohahnemannism' that we have
discussed in the text puts forward with experimental evidences the view that if
serial dilutions are made strictly following Hahnemann's dictum, faint traces of
drug molecule remains even in infinitesimally diluted solution. He realized that
it is possible in freshly prepared medicines with limited application, but is very
difficult in industrially prepared large scale ones. We came to know from the text
that the drug molecules are tightly packed with water and ethanol molecules, so that
they can reach up to the nucleus and thereby influence minute protein factors, which
are deficient or inactive (down-regulated) to arouse physiological stress. Therefore,
overdose of the medicine becomes inhibitory (in case of 'Provers') and minute dose
becomes stimulatory (as in patients). If the medicine is wrongly selected and repeatedly
administered to the patient, medicinal symptoms (like that of 'Provers') may appear
without any sign of cure. As directed by Hahnemann, 'Proving' experiments with new and
new drugs are essential. Nowadays, there are some legal and ethical restrictions to
introduce human beings as 'Provers'. Hence, the discovery of new medicines, which
would perfectly match to the patient's individualistic symptoms as well as pathological
complaints became difficult. Even we do not have the complete knowledge about all the
minute protein factors regarding their physiological functions, abundance period,
environmental effect, potential binding affinity with medicinal substances, and minute
toxicological responses of the same upon human beings, so that, we cannot artificially
induce patient-like symptoms in healthy individuals. Therefore, the development of
modern scientific philosophy like 'Neohahnemannism' is essential. The proposed model
would neither require endless proving experiments upon the healthy subjects, nor any
subjective knowledge about the protein profile of the patient. Only the binding and
optimal inhibition of the minutest protein factors, which are deficient, would automatically
correspond to Hahnemann's concept of 'Similimum', ultimately resulting constitutional change
of the patient towards the direction of cure. We expect that a suitable and highly sensitive
biotechnological tool based on the philosophy of the proposed model would soon be devised,
which would be helpful enough to eradicate diabetes, hypertension, cancer and AIDS
forever in an individualistic way (irrespective of names of the diseases). Although,
the estimated cost of the series of experiments with radio-labeled probes, as mentioned
here, might be almost equal or even higher than Human
Genome Project . However, being a heuristic approach of medicine, the research works of 'Neohahnemannism', similar to immunotherapy, will continue year after years with the discovery of newer medicines, tailor-made to each particular individuals, whose efficacy would never fade away like the generations of allopathic drugs in saving human lives.
Dedicated to my beloved mother who died recently in cancer